Document Type : Research paper

Authors

1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran- Iran

2 1-Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Science, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. 2-Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, United States

3 Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, United States

4 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Science, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

In this study, 50 Iranian fennel landraces from different phenological types, were evaluated for their oil content and fatty acid profile. Landraces were categorized into three phenological groups: Late (180 days), Medium (140 days) and early maturity habit (110 days). The highest fatty acid content among the early, medium, and late maturity types were detected in Hamedan (19.5%), Marvdasht (23%), and Sari (21%) consequently. The highest yield of oil per square meter among the early, medium, and late maturity types were detected in Fasa (65.3 ml/m2), Meshkin Shahr (92.5 ml/m2), and Sari (71.4 ml/m2), consequently. The main component of fatty acid profile were, petroselinic/ oleic acid (52-64%), linoleic acid (26-39%), palmitic acid (0.3-4.1%), stearic acid (1.3-2.4%), linolenic acid (0.6-3.6%), and myristic acid (0.35-1.07%). It was observed that landraces with high petroselinic and oleic acid content originated from arias with a dry and warm environment, while landraces with high linoleic acid content originated from regions with a humid and cool climate. This pattern shows potential evolutionary adaption of biochemical pathways to the environmental condition. Our data showed that fennel oil contains a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids, and a higher ratio of monounsaturated to polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids. In conclusion, our result indicated that bitter fennel, furthermore of a medicinal plant, has a high potential for oil production with a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, and is a good candidate as at least a new table oil crop.

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