Document Type : Research paper


1 Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management, Kundli, Sonepat, 131 028, Haryana, India

2 Department of Food Process Engineering, National Institute of Food Technology, Rourkela, 769008, Orissa, India Department of Food Engineering, National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management, Kundli, Sonepat, 131 028, Haryana, India

3 Department of Food Engineering, National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management, Kundli, Sonepat, 131 028, Haryana, India


Mushrooms are characterized as the fruiting bodies of fungi and are fruitful source of high-quality protein and vitamins with low calories. Among the three most cultivated species, the oyster mushroom stands with limited shelf life (2-3 days at refrigerated conditions). Elevated quotients of browning reaction and restricted shelf life obliges the preservation of species as a matter of concern. A suitable pre-treatment along with the drying method is very important to retain the bioactive compounds of oyster mushroom. Pre-treatment optimization prior to oyster mushroom drying was carried out in two steps which involved individual and combined effects of blanching (70 to 90 oC) and chemical treatments. Thereafter, it was dried in a recently developed multi-mode novel drying unit under hot air and vacuum drying (50-70oC) conditions. Pre-treatment with citric acid and blanching at 80 oC for 2 min resulted in the lowest residual activity of polyphenol oxidase. Retention of phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and antioxidant compounds were higher in the samples dried using vacuum drying. Increase in temperature from 50 to 70 oC significantly decreased the bioactive compounds and colour of vacuum dried samples. In samples dried using hot air-drying, the higher retention of bioactive compounds and colour was obtained at 60 oC as compared to 70 oC and 50 oC. Page model was found to be the best fitted model among the different models studied. Analysis inferred the usefulness of optimised pre-treatment and vacuum drying technique at low temperature for drying of oyster mushrooms.
Abbreviations: AA, Ascorbic acid; BI, Browning index CA, Citric acid; FRAP, Ferric reducing antioxidant power; KMS, Potassium metabisulphite; MR, Moisture ratio; PPO, Polyphenol oxidase; RR, Rehydration ratio; RSA, Radical scavenging activity; TFC, Total flavonoid content; TPC, Total phenol content


Akbarirad H, Kazemeini S.M, Shariaty M.A. 2013. Deterioration and some of applied preservation techniques for common mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus spp.). Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology and Food Science 2(6), 2398-2402.
Ares G, Lareo C, Lema P. 2007. Modified atmosphere packaging for postharvest storage of mushrooms - A review. Fresh Produce 1(1), 32-40.
Argyropoulos D, Khan M.T, Müller J. 2011. Effect of air temperature and pre-treatment on color changes and texture of dried Boletus edulis mushroom. Drying Technology 29(16), 1890-1900.
Arora S, Shivhare U.S, Ahmed J, Raghavan G.S.V. 2003. Drying kinetics of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus florida mushrooms. Transactions of American Society of Agricultural Engineers 46(3), 721-724.
Artnaseaw A, Theerakulpisut S, Benjapiyaporn C. 2010. Drying characteristics of Shiitake mushroom and Jinda chili during vacuum heat pump drying. Food Bioproducts and Processing 88(2), 105-114.
Benseddik A, Azzi A, Zidoune M.N, Khanniche R, Besombes C. 2019. Empirical and diffusion models of rehydration process of differently dried pumpkin slices. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 18(4), 401-410.
Bernaś E, Jaworska G, Lisiewska Z. 2006. Edible mushrooms as a source of valuable nutritive constituents. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Technologia Alimentaria 5(1), 5-20.
Bhattacharya M, Srivastav P.P, Mishra H.N. 2015. Thin-layer modelling of convective and microwave-convective drying of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Journal of Food Science and Technology 52(4), 2013–2022
Chandra A, Kumar S, Tarafdar A, Nema P.K. 2021. Ultrasonic and osmotic pretreatments followed by convective and vacuum drying of papaya slices. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 101(6), 2264-2278.
Giri S.K, Prasad S. 2007. Drying kinetics and rehydration characteristics of microwave-vacuum and convective hot-air dried mushrooms. Journal of Food Engineering 78(2), 512-521.
Guine      P.F.R, Barroca M.J. 2011. Influence of freeze-drying treatment on the texture of mushrooms and onions. Croatia Journal of Food Science and Technology 3(2), 26-31.
Jafri M, Jha A, Bunkar D.S, Ram R.C. 2013. Quality retention of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus florida) by a combination of chemical treatments and modified atmosphere packaging. Postharvest Biology and Technology 76, 112-118.
Kotwaliwale N, Bakane P, Verma A. 2007. Changes in textural and optical properties of oyster mushroom during hot air drying. Journal of Food Engineering 78(4), 1207-1211.
Krokida M.K, Karathanos V.T, Maroulis Z.B, Kouris M.D. 2003. Drying kinetics of some vegetables. Journal of Food Engineering 59, 391-403.
Louaileche H, Khodja Y.K, Bey M.B. 2015. Phytochemical contents and in vitro antioxidant activity of Algerian orange juices. International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering 1(2), 107-111.
Maurya V.K, Gothandam K.M, Ranjan V, Shakya A, Pareek S. 2018. Effects of drying methods (microwave-vacuum, freeze, hot air and sun drying) on physical, chemical and nutritional attributes of five pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 98(9), 3492-3500.
Miranda M, Vega-Gálvez A, López J, Parada G, Sanders M, Aranda M, Di Scala K. 2010. Impact of air-drying temperature on nutritional properties, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.). Industrial Crops and Products 32(3), 258-263.
Mishra K.K, Pal R.S, Mishra P.K, Bhatt J.C. 2016. Antioxidant activities and mineral composition of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) as influenced by different dryingmethods. Asian Journal of Chemistry 28(9), 2025-2030.
Palacios I, Lozano M, Moro C, D’arrigo M, Rostagno M.A, Martínez J.A, Villares A. 2011. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds occurring in edible mushrooms. Food Chemistry 128(3), 674-678.
Pareek S, Kaushik R.A. 2012. Effect of drying methods on quality of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) powder during storage. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 71(11), 727-732.
Purkayastha M.D, Nath A, Deka B.C, Mahanta C.L. 2013. Thin layer drying of tomato slices. Journal of Food Science and Technology 50(4), 642–653.  
Queiroz C, da Silva A.J.R, Lopes M.L.M, Fialho E, Valente-Mesquita V.L. 2011. Polyphenol oxidase activity, phenolic acid composition and browning in cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, L.) after processing. Food Chemistry 125(1), 128-132.
Rhim J.W, Lee J.H. 2011. Drying kinetics of whole and sliced shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes). Food Science and Biotechnology 20(2), 419-427.
Salehi F, Kashaninejad M, Jafarianlari A. 2017. Drying kinetics and characteristics of combined infrared-vacuum drying of button mushroom slices. Heat and Mass Transfer 53, 1751-1759.
Sehrawat R, Chandra A, Nema P.K, Arora V.K. 2019. Drying of fruits and vegetables in a developed multimode drying unit and comparison with commercially available systems. Journal of Institutions of Engineers (India): Series A 100(3), 381-386.
Sehrawat R, Nema P.K. 2018. Low pressure superheated steam drying of onion slices: kinetics and quality comparison with vacuum and hot air drying in an advanced drying unit. Journal of Food Science and Technology 55(10), 4311-4320.
Sehrawat R, Nema P.K, Kaur B.P. 2018. Quality evaluation and drying characteristics of mango cubes dried using low pressure superheated steam vacuum drying and hot air drying methods. LWT-Food Science and Technology 92, 548-555.
Singhal S, Rasane P, Kaur S, Singh J, Gupta N. 2020. Thermal degradation kinetics of bioactive compounds in button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during tray drying process. Journal of Food Process Engineering 43(12), e13555. 
Tewari S, Sehrawat R, Nema P.K, Kaur B.P. 2017. Preservation effect of high-pressure processing on ascorbic acid of fruits and vegetables: A review. Journal of Food Biochemistry 41(1), e12319.
Valiente L, Ohaco E, De Michelis A. 2016. Antioxidant capacity of frozen Pleurotus ostreatus during convective drying. Micologia Aplicada International 28(1), 1-10.
Vasco C, Ruales J, Kamal-Eldin A. 2008. Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of major fruits from Ecuador. Food Chemistry 111(4), 816-823.