Document Type : Research paper


1 Department of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

2 Department of Grapevine Production and Genetic Improvement, Iranian Grape and Raisin Institute, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

3 Department of Food Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Food Sciences and Technology, Mashhad, Iran


Raisins are good sources of bioactive compounds with beneficial effects on human health. Mineral nutrition is one of the main viticultural practices affecting grape and raisin phytochemical compositions. In this study, the effect of preharvest foliar application of potassium (K2SO4; 0, 1.5 and 3%) and iron (Fe-EDDHA; 0, 0.5 and 1%) was evaluated on some nutritional and biochemical properties of raisins produced from ripped ‘Red Sultana’ grape (Vitis vinifera L.). The experiment laid on a factorial arrangement of variables using a completely randomized block design. The highest soluble sugars of fructose and glucose were related to raisin produced from the vines treated with 3% potassium in combination with 0.5% iron fertilizers. However, 3% K2SO4-treated vines in combination with 1% Fe- EDDHA showed a considerable increase in raisin sucrose and also putrescine concentration. The raisin organic acids of succinic acid, fumaric acid, citric acid, and malic acid increased significantly in treated vines with both fertilizers at final doses; however, tartaric acid showed the highest amount in 3% potassium in combination with 0.5% iron treatments. The vines treated with a high level of potassium in combination with moderate level of iron produced raisin with the highest phenolic acids of kaempferol, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and resveratrol and also showed the lowest polyphenol oxidase activity. Furthermore, raisin cinnamic acid, rutin and catechin concentration showed a peak in vines sprayed with a high level of potassium and iron and also most anthocyanidins such as petunidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside reached their highest concentration by this treatment. Likewise, the highest antioxidant capacities (measured by FRAP, DPPH and ABTS methods) were achieved in 3% potassium–treated vines in combined with iron at a moderate level. In conclusion, results indicated that preharvest application of potassium and iron are highly effective to improve the Red Sultana raisin bioactive compositions.


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