Document Type : Review paper


1 Agriculture Graduates, Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

2 Agriculture Graduates, Mahendra Ratna Multiple Campus, IAAS, Tribhuvan University, Nepal


This review provides a comprehensive overview of the basic and applied aspects of gibberellins (GAs) and its application in the regulation of growth and development of different vegetable crops. Plant growth regulators are the substances which are synthesized in particular cells and are transferred to other cells where in extremely small quantities influence the developmental processes. The GAs are an important group of phytohormones which exert various effects on promotion and regulation of plant growth. Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a type of GA plant hormone, with great economical and industrial importance. GAs affect stem elongation, germination, elimination of dormancy, flowering, sex expression, flooding responses, enzyme induction and leaf and fruit senescence. Foliar application of GA3 has been shown to change the physiological and developmental processes, including plant vegetative growth, sex expression, yield, and yield components in different vegetable crops. This study aims to reveal the impacts of GAs on different aspect of crop production with special emphasis on vegetable crops. Furthermore, appropriate concentration for the applications of GA3 in vegetable crops would be discussed so that the use of such regulators is environmentally and toxicologically safe for both plants and the consumers.


Alexopoulos, A.A., Akoumianakis, K.A., Passam, H.C.,( 2006). Effect of plant growth regulators on the tuberisation and physiological age of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers grown from true potato seed. Can. J. Plant Sci. 86, 1217–1225.
Alexopoulos, A.A., Karapanos, I.C., Akoumianakis, K.A. Effect of Gibberellic Acid on the Growth Rate and Physiological Age of Tubers Cultivated from True Potato Seed. J Plant Growth Regul 36, 1–10 (2017).
Ali, M., Hossain,  M.M, Zakaria, M., Hossain, T., Naznin, A., & Islam, M. (2015). EFFECT OF GA3 ON QUALITY SEED PRODUCTION OF ONION IN BANGLADESH. Eco-Friendly Agril. J., 8(03), 47–50.
Ansari, A. M., & Chowdhary, B. M. (2018). Effects of boron and plant growth regulators on bottle gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ( Molina ) Standle .). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1965, 202–206.
Bahadur, A. & Singh N. K. (2014). Plant Growth Substances in Vegetable Production. pp. 178-196. In: Singh, K.P. and Bahadur, A. (eds.).  Olericulture: Fundamentals of Vegetable Production. Vol. I. Kalyani Publishers, Noida, Utter Pradesh, India.
Barad, K. B., Patel, K. M., Jangid, R., & Jethava, B. A. (2020). Effect of application of GA 3 and NAA on yield , quality and economics of broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var . italica ) var . Pusa KTS-1. 8(5), 1376–1378.
Bhattarai, B. R., Pal, A. K., & Amgain, L. P. (2021). Response of varying levels of phyto-hormones and micro- nutrients on growth and yield of brinjal ( Solanum melongena L .) in sub-tropical Terai region of India. 4, 40–47.
Bryan, J.E. (1989). Breaking dormancy of potato tubers. CIP Research Guide. 16. International Research Center, Lima and Peru, pp: 13.
Chauasiy, J. M. (2014). Effect of GA3 and NAA on the Growth and Yield of Cabbage (Brassicaoleracea Var.Capitata L.) cv. Pride of India.  The Bioscan, 1139-1141.
Chindi, A.,  Tsegaw, T. (2019). Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Growth, Yield and Quality of Potato (Solanum TuberosumL.) In Central Highlands of Ethiopia. J Hortic Sci For 1: 205.
Curtis P.J. ,  &  Cross, B.E. (1954). Gibberellic acid—a new metabolite from the culture filtrates of Gibberella fujikuroi. Chem. Ind 1066.
Dalai, S., Singh, M.K., & Soni, S. (2020). Yield and yield traits of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) as influenced by foliar application of plant growth regulators.  International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 9(3): 121–126,
Dev, R., Singh, V. K., Raj, S., & Shukla, K. C. (2020). Effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield of Cabbage ( Brassica oleraceae var . capitata ). 9(3), 1024–1026.
Dhage, A. A., Nagre, P. K., Bhangre, K. K., and Pappu, A. K. (2011). Effect of plant growth regulators  on growth and yield parameters of okra. Asian Journal of Horticulture, 6(1), 170-172.
Dhakar, S. A. (2015). Studies on the effect of inorganic fertilizers and plant growth regulator on growth and yield of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) . The Indian J.Basic Appl. Res.,, 27-39.
Emonger,V.  (2007). Gibberellic Acid (GA3) Influence on vegetative Growth, Nodulation and yield of cowpea (vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. In Journal of Agronomy (p. 10).
Gaikwad, R. A., Shinde, S. S., & Shinde, V. S. (2021). Effect of different growth regulators on growth , flowering and quality of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus ( L .) Moench ). Journal of Phytocognosy and Phytochemistry, 10(1), 1206–1210.
Gurjar, J. S., Banafar, R. N. S., Gupta, N. K., & Gurjar, P. K. S. (2018). Effect of NAA , GA3 on growth and yield of tomato varieties. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 7(5), 3157–3160.
Heden, P., Thomas S.G. (May 2012). "Gibberellin biosynthesis and its regulation". The Biochemical Journal. 444 (1): 11–25.
Hidayatullah, T. Mahmood, M. Farooq, M. A. Khokhar and S.I. Hussain (2012). Plant growth regulators affecting sexexpression of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Molina)plants. Pakistan J. Agric. Res.,  25(1): 50.
Islam, M. M. (2017). Growth and Yield Potential of Late Planting Cabbage Influenced by Gibberellic Acid. International Journal of Business Social Science Research, 62-67.
Kadi S.A., Asati, K.P., Barche, S. and Tulasigeri, R.G. (2018). Effect of different plant growth regulators on growth, yield and quality parameters in cucumber (Cucumis sativus  L.) under polyhouse condition.  International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(04): 3339–3352,
Kaur, P., & Mal, D. (2018). Effect of foliar spray of NAA and GA3 on the growth , curd formation and yield of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea L . var . botrytis ). 7(3), 2805–2807.
Lamichhane, A., Mamata, K. C., Shrestha, M., & Baral, B. (2021). EFFECT OF SEED PRIMING ON GERMINATION OF OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus). Malaysian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5(2), 111–114.
Lizarazo-peña, P. A., Fornaguera-espinoza, F., Ñústez-lópez, C. E., Cruz-gutiérrez, N. A., & Moreno-fonseca, L. P. (2020). Effect of gibberellic acid-3 and 6-benzilaminopurine on dormancy on dormancy and sprouting of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L .) tubers cv . Diacol Capiro. March 2021, 2–3.
Mandingbam, V., Mandal, C. K., & Jana, S. (2020). Effect of Some Plant Growth Regulators on Growth , Yield and Quality of Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L . var . italica Plenck ). 9(11), 2437–2442.
Netam, J. L. and Sharma, R. (2014). Efficacy of plant growth regulators on growth characters and yield attributes in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) cv. Brinjal 3112. IOSR J.Agric. Vet. Sci., (IOSR- JAVS), 7: 27-30.
Reza, M.M., Islam, M., Hoque, M.Z., & Sikder, R.K., (2015). Influence of Different GA 3 Concentrtions on Growth and Yield of Broccoli. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research, 10(5), 332–335.
Meena, R.S. Effect of GA3and NAA on growth, yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Pusa Ruby grown under semi-arid conditions. Current Agriculture. 2008; 32(1/2):83-86
Meena, O. M. P. (2015). A Review : Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Production. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research (IJASR), 5(5), 71–84.
Mehraj, H., Taufique, T., Ali, M. R., Sikder, R. K., & Uddin, A. F. M. J. (2015). Impact of GA3 and NAA on Horticultural Traits of Abelmoschus esculentus. World Applied Sciences Journal, 33(11), 1712–1717.
Miceli, A., Vetrano, F., & Moncada, A. (2020). Effects of foliar application of gibberellic acid on the salt tolerance of tomato and sweet pepper transplants. Horticulturae, 6(4), 1–20.
Noor, F., Hossain, F., & Ara, U. (2017). Effects of Gibberellic Acid (Ga3) on Growth and Yield Parameters of French Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.). Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Science, 43(1), 49–60.
Olaiya, C, O., Gbadegesin, M, A., Nwauzoma, & A, B. (2013). Bioregulators as tools for plant growth, development, defence and improvement. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12(32), 4987–4999.
Pal, P., Yadav, K., Kumar, K., & Singh, N. (2016). Cumulative effect of potassium and gibberellic acid on growth , biochemical attributes and productivity of F1 hybrid cucumber. Environmental and Experimental Biology, 57–61.
Prajapati, S., Jamkar, T., Singh, O. P., Raypuriya, N., Mandloi, R., & Jain, P. K. (2015). Plant growth regulators in vegetable production: An overview. Plant Archives, 15(2), 619–626.
Prasad, R. N.,  Singh,  S.K.,   Yadava  R.B.,  Chaurasia  S.N.S.  (2013). Effect  of  GA3   and NAA  on growth and yield of  tomato. Vegetable  Science,  40(2):  195-197.
Rahman, M. N. (2013). Plant growth regulators promote growth and yield of summer tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Progressive agriculture, 32-37.
Rahman, M. A., Sikder, S., Bahadur, M. M., Pramanik, S. K., Mohammad, H., & Science, D. (2020). INFLUENCE OF GIBBERELLIC ACID (GA3) ON GROWTH, FLOWERING, AND FRUIT YIELD OF CUCUMBER. Journal of Science and Technology, 18(June), 33–42.
Rai, B., Rajwade, V., Topno, S.E. and Kerketta 2020. Effect of GA3 and Kinetin on growth, yield and quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) cv. F1 hybrid (Farm Sona). Green Farming Vol. 11 (6): 518-521. Nov. -Dec. 2020.
Raj, A. C., Holebasappa, K., Hore, J. K., and Das, S. (2016). Effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield of Chilli (Capsicum annuum  L.). Research on Crops, 17(2).
Ravat, A. K., and Nirav, M. (2015). Influence of plant growth regulators on  growth, seed yield and seed quality in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus  (L.) Moench] cv. GAO-5 under middle Gujarat condition. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 11(1), 151-157.
Rashid, M. H. A. (2010). EFFECT OF SULPHUR AND GA3 ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF ONION. Progress. Agric., 21, 57–63.
Rodrigues, J. D., & Ono, E. O. (2017). Effects of plant growth regulators on eggplant seed germination and seedling growth. October 2018.
Saha, P. (2009). Effect of NAA and GA3 on yield and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Environ. & Ecol. 27(3):1048-1050.
Sandra, N., KumarLal, S., Chakrabarty, S.  K., & Talukdar, A. (2015). Effect of plant growth regulators on sex expression, fruit setting, seed yield and quality in the parental lines for hybrid seed production in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 85(9), 1185-91.
Sanusi, A. A. (2019). Effect of seed presoaking in gibberellic acid on growth , flowering , and yield of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L .) plants. Journal of Scientific Agriculture, 3, 9–13. 25081/jsa.2019.v3.5278
Singh, M., Rana, D. K., Rawat, J. M. S., & Rawat, S. S. (2011). Effect of GA3 and kinetin on growth , yield and quality of sprouting broccoli ( Brassica oleracea var . italica ). 3(9), 282–285.
Singh, M. J. (2016). Effect of GA3and NAA on growth and quality of garden Pea (Pisum sativum L.) cv. Arkel. The Bioscan, 381-383.
Singh, S., & Saxena, A. K. (2020). Efficacy of plant growth regulator ( GA3 ) on growth and yield attributes of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var . botrytis L .) at Dehradun valley. 8(5), 101–104.
Singh, J., Dwivedi, A. K., Devi, P., & Bajeli, J. (2019). Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth and Yield Attributes of Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicom Mill .). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 8(01), 1635–1641.
Singh, S. & Singh, T. (2021). Effect of gibberellic acid on growth , yield and quality parameters of chilli ( Capsicum annum L .). Journal of Pharmacognosy Anf Phytochemistry, 8(2), 2021–2023.
Sitapara, H. H., Vihol, N. J., Patel, M. J., &  Patel, J. S. (2011). Effect of growth regulators and micro nutrient on growth and yield of cauliflower cv.'Snowball-16'. Asian Journal of Horticulture, 6(2), 348-351.
Stowe, B.B., & Yamaki, T. (1957). "The History and Physiological Action of the GAs". Annual Review of Plant Physiology. 8 (1): 181–216. doi:10.1146/ annurev.pp.08.060157.001145.
Wamiq, M., Prasad, V. M., & Kaushal, G. S. (2020). Effect of GA 3 and NAA on yield of Bottle Gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ) cv ( MGH-4 ). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 9(10), 2217–2221.
Yamaguchi, S. (2008). "Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation". Annual Review of Plant Biology, 59: 225–251.