Document Type : Research paper


Department of Horticultural Science, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


Understanding genetic diversity and germplasm classification are the keys for selection of right parents for breeding purposes. In the present study, the genetic diversity and classification of 45 Iranian and 15 foreign melons were evaluated. A greenhouse experiment was laid out as a randomized completely block design with three replications and five plants in each replicates. Fruit number had a positive correlation with female flower numbers, fruit number, and fruit yield. The fruit number, however, correlated negatively with the leaf area. Genotypes with monoicous flowering habit produced female flowers in lower nodes and formed longer fruit. The number of the female flower, fruit number, yield, high total soluble solids (TSS), leaf area, the first node of female appearance, and flesh firmness were amongst the high weighted and more coefficient in the component analysis. For the breeding purpose, all accessions of cluster 4 were andromonoecious and obtained high TSS, leaf area, and flesh firmness. From the first three clusters, 11 accessions were monoecious, which belonged to TN-93-5, TN 92100, TN 921071, TN 922025 (Cluster1), FLTM 27, and FLTM35 (Cluster2), TN921026, TN-94-21, TN- 94-44, TN-94-28, and TN-94-3 (Cluster3). The characteristic of cluster 3 included melons with high female flower and fruit number and fewer number of the first node of female flower. In conclusion, good genetic resources and foreign types for selection are available for improving the breeding of melons based on the evaluated traits.


Adhikari B.N, Shrestha J, Dhakal B, Joshi B.P, Bhatta N.R. 2018. Agronomic performance and genotypic diversity for morphological traits among early maize genotypes. International Journal of Applied Biology 2, 33-43.
Aslani L, Gholami M, Mobli M, Sabzalian M.R. 2020. The influence of altered sink-source balance on the plant growth and yield of greenhouse tomato. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology 26, 2109-2123.
Bagheriyan S, Karimi H.R, Esmaelizadeh M. 2015. Evaluation of genetic relationships among melon genotypes based on morphological markers. International Journal of Vegetable Science 21, 36-52.
Bartaula S, Adhikari A, Panthi U, Karki P, Timalsena K. 2019. Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Agriculture and Natural Resources 2, 215-222.
Boitshepo P, Martin M, Puffy S. Stephen O.A. 2020. Development, yield and quality of cantaloupe and honeydew melon in soilless culture in a non-temperature controlled high tunnel. International Journal of Vegetable Science 26, 292–301.
Cargnelutti F, Silveira A, Lixinski D, Mendonça B, Carini, Bandeira F, Tolfo C, Pezzini, Vieira R. 2020. Genetic variability and linear relationships between plant architecture and maize grain yield. Ciência Rural, 50, 12 PP.
Castellanos M.T, Cabello M.J, Cartagena M, Augusto M, Francisco R. 2011. Growth dynamics and yield of melon as influenced by nitrogen fertilizer. Scientia Agricola 68, 191-199. 
Danesh M, Lotfi M, Azizinia S. 2015. Genetic diversity of Iranian melon cultigens revealed by AFLP markers. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 2(1), 43-53.
Darrudi R, Nazeri V, Soltani F, Shokrpour M, Ercolano M. 2018. Genetic diversity of Cucurbita pepo L. and Cucurbita moschata Duchesne accessions using fruit and seed quantitative traits. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 8, 60–66.
Escribano S, Lázaro A. 2009. Agro-morphological diversity of Spanish traditional melons (Cucumis melo L.) of the Madrid provenance. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 56, 481–497.
Fabriki Ourang S, Shams-Bakhsh M, Jalali Javaran M.A.J. 2009. Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Iranian Melons (Cucumis melo L.) Using ISSR Markers. Iranian Journal of Biology 22, 271-281.
FAO, 2018. FAOSTAT agricultural database.
Feyzian E,  Jalali Javaran M,  Dehghani H, Zamyad H. 2007. Analysis of the Genetic Diversity Among Some of Iranian Melon (Cucumis melo  L.) Landraces Using Morphological and Rapid Molecular Markers. Water and Soil Science 11, 151–163.
Gazafrodi A. 2008. The investigation of genetic diversity with morphological data in rice varieties (Oryza Sativa l). [in Persian]. Pajouhesh and Sazandeg, 110–117.
Hatami M, Kalantari S, Soltani F. 2016. Different Ripening Indices and Quality Attributes of Different Groups of Cucumis melo. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 3(1), 69-76.
IPGRI. 2003. Descriptors for melon (Cucumis melo L.). International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.
Kandel B.P, Sharma B.K, Sharma S, Shrestha J. 2018. Genetic variability, heritability, and genetic advance estimates in early maize (Zea mays L,) genotypes in Nepal. Agricultura 107, 29-35.
Lee J.M, Sonnhammer E.L. 2003. Genomic gene clustering analysis of pathways in eukaryotes. Genome Research 13, 875–882.
Lopez-Sese A.I, Staub J.E, Gomez-Guillamon M.L. 2003. Genetic analysis of Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.) germplasm using a standardized molecular-marker array and geographically diverse reference accessions. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 108, 41–52.
Maleki M, Shojaeiyan A, Rashidi S. 2018. Morphological and genetic diversity within and among melon (Cucumis melo L .) landraces in Iran. Genetic Engineering Biotechnology 16, 599-606.
Monforte A.J, Garcia-Mars J, Arus P. 2003. Genetic variability in melon based on microsatellite variation. Plant Breeding 122, 153–157.
Munger H.M, and Robinson W.R. 1991. Nomenclature of Cucumis melo L. Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 14, 43-44.
Nasrabadi H.N. 2012. Study on morphologic variation of different Iranian melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L.). African Journal of Agricultural Research 7, 2764-2769.
Obando-Ulloa J.M, Jowkar M.M, Moreno E, Souri M.K, Martínez J.A, Bueso M.C, Monforte A.J, Fernández-Trujillo J.P. 2009. Discrimination of climacteric and non-climacteric melon fruit at harvest or at the senescence stage by quality traits. Science of Food and Agriculture 89, 1743-1753.
Obando J, Miranda C, Jowkar M, Moreno E, Souri M.K, Martínez J.A, Arús P, García-Mas J, Monforte A.J, Fernández-Trujillo J.P. 2007. Creating climacteric melon fruit from no climacteric parentals: postharvest quality implications. In Advances in Plant Ethylene Research 14, 18-22.
Pitrat M. 2007. Melon, In: Vegetables I. Springer New York, 283–315.
Pitrat M, Hanelt P, Hammer K. 2000. Some comment on infraspecific classification of cultivars of melons. Acta Horticulturae 510, 29-36.
Pourranjbari Saghaiesh S, Souri M.K, Moghaddam M. 2018. Effects of different magnesium levels on some morphophysiological characteristics and nutrient elements uptake in Khatouni melons (Cucumis melo var. inodorus). Plant Nutrition 42, 27-39.
Raghami M, López-Sesé A.I, Hasandokht M.R, Zamani Z., Moghadam M.R.F, Kashi A. 2014. Genetic diversity among melon accessions from Iran and their relationships with melon germplasm of diverse origins using microsatellite markers. Plant Systematics and Evolution 300, 139–151.
Reddy B.P.K, Begum H, Sunil N, Reddy M.T. 2017. Correlation and path coefficient analysis in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6, 2261–2276.
Ritschel P.S, Cesar T, Lins D.L, Tristan R.L, Salles G, Buso C, Buso J.A, Ferreira M.E. 2004. Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library for genetic analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L .). Bio Med Central Plant Biology 4, 1471-2229.
Sensoy S, Büyükalaca S, Abak K. 2007. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Turkish melons (Cucumis melo L.) based on phenotypic characters and RAPD markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 54, 1351–1365.
Singh D, Leskovar D.I, Sharma S.P, Sarao N.K, Vashisht V.K. 2020. Genetic diversity and interrelationship among Indian and exotic melons based on fruit morphology, quality components and microsatellite markers. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants 26, 985–1002.
Soltani F, Akashi Y, Kashi A, Zamani Z, Mostofi Y. 2010. Characterization of Iranian melon landraces of Cucumis melo L. groups Flexuosus and Dudaim by analysis of morphological characters and random amplified polymorphic DNA 60, 34–45.
Staub J.E, López-Sesé A.I, Fanourakis N. 2004. Diversity among melon landraces (Cucumis melo L.) from Greece and their genetic relationships with other melon germplasm of diverse origins. Euphytica 136, 151–166.
Szamosi C, Solmaz I, Sari N, Bársony C. 2009. Morphological characterization of Hungarian and Turkish watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai) genetic resources. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 56, 1091–1105.
Walters T.W. 1989. Historical overview on domesticated plants in China with special emphasis on the Cucurbitaceae. Economic Botany 43, 297–313.
Yildiz M, Ekbic E, Keles D, Sensoy S, Abak K. 2011. Use of ISSR, SRAP, and RAPD markers to assess genetic diversity in Turkish melons. Scientia Horticulturae 130, 349–353.
Zargar Shooshtari F, Souri M.K, Hasandokht M.R, Jari S.K. 2020. Glycine mitigates fertilizer requirements of agricultural crops: case study with cucumber as a high fertilizer demanding crop. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture 7, 1–10.