Document Type : Research paper

Authors

Department of biology, faculty of sciences, Shahid Bahonar university of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

10.22059/ijhst.2020.303725.374

Abstract

Fruit blankness is an important problem of pistachio cultivation, which results from many reasons. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of soil texture, irrigation interval, and cultivar on nut quality and blankness of pistachio. The treatments included soil texture (light and heavy), irrigation intervals (24 and 48 days), cultivar (Kaleghoochi and Ahmadaghaei), and their interactions were studied. Measured traits were flower and small fruit abscission rate, nut weight, blank and semi-blank fruit percentage, splitting percentage, and ounce. Symptoms of fruit blankness were determined by anatomical study of blank fruits. Results showed that a 48-day irrigation interval produced nuts with higher quality, lower blankness percentage, higher weight and size, and higher number of split ones than the other treatments. It is assumed that plants produce more fruits by sufficient water supply, thus the competition for photosynthetic products results in smaller, lower-weight seeds. Light soil was more suitable regarding nut qualities, but flower and small fruit abscission rates were higher in light soil probably because of temperature fluctuations in this soil. Anatomical studies showed that blankness could result from a lack of fertilization (parthenocarpy) or embryo abortion (stenospermocarpy). Parthenocarpy mostly occurred in the more sensitive cultivar, Kaleghoochi, while the more tolerant cultivar, Ahmadaghaei, mostly had stenospermocarpic blank fruits. It was also determined that embryo abortion could occur at different stages of development.

Keywords

Ayfer M, Okay Y, Erdoan V. 1990. Embryo formation and development in pistachio nut. Proceeding of the1st National Symposium on Pistachio Nut, 1990, Gaziantep, Turkey, pp, 96-106.
Bolandnazar S, Shirzad A, Grigorian V. 2009. Assessment the adoptability of some pistachio cultivars in Azar Shahr region, Abstract book, 5thIntrernational Symposium on Pistachios & Almonds, October, 6-10, 2009 Sanliurfa- Turkey, pp. 71.
Copeland H.F, Doyel B.E. 1940. Some features of the structure of Toxicodendron diversiloba. American Journal of Botany 27, 932-939.
Crane J.C, Catlin P.B, Al- Shalan I. 1976. Carbohydrate levels in the pistachio as related to alternate bearing. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science 101, 371-374.
Crane J.C. 1973. Parthenocarpy- A factor contributing to the production of blank pistachios. HortScienc 8, 388-390.
Davarynejad G.H, Azizi M, Akheratee M. 2009. Effect of foliar nutrition on quality, quantity and of alternate bearing of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Journal of Horticultural sciences 23(2), 1-10.
Esmaeelpour A. 2005. The characteristics of some important cultivars of pistachio in Iran. Iranian Pistachio Research Institute 27, 10-14.
Ferguson L, Polito V.S, Kallsen C. 2005. The pistachio tree; botany and physiology and factors that affect yield. California Pistachio Manual 31-40.
Garner L.C, Lovatt C.J. 2016. Physiological factors affecting flower and fruit abscission of ‘Hass’ avocado, Scientia Horticulture 199, 32-40.
Gonzales A.M, Vesprini J.L. 2010. Anatomy and fruit development in Schinopsis balansa (Anacardiacaea). Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 67 (2), 103-112.
Grimm J. 1912. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche untersuchungen an Rhus und Coriaria. Flora 104, 309-334.
Grundwag M .1976. Embryology and fruit development in four Pistacia L. (Anacardaceae), Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 73, 355-370.
Guitian J. 1993. Why prunus mahaleb (Rosaceae) produces more flowers than fruits. American Journal of Botany 80, 1305-1309.
Hershkovitz V, Friedman H, Goldschmidt EE, Pesis E. 2009. The role of the embryo and ethylene in avocado fruit mesocarp discoloration. Journal of Experimental Botany 6(3), 791-799.
Hormaza J.I, polito V.S. 1996. Pistillate and staminate flower development in dioecious Pistacia vera (Anacardiaceae). American Journal of Botany 83(6), 759-766.
Janzen D.H. 1985. Spondias mombin is culturally deprived in megafauna-free forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 1, 131-155.
Johansen D.A. 1940. Plant Microtechnique. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA.
Jordano P. 1989. Pre- dispersal biology of Pistacia lenticus (Anacardiaceae): cumulative effects on seed removal by birds. Oikos 55, 5-386.
Kardush M, Dairy M.A, Shdeifat S, Albashabsheh N. 2009. Effect of some local pollinators on fruit characteristics of three pistachio cultivar in Aleppo Area. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 5(3), 255-260.
Koocheki A, Nassiri Mahallati M, Azizi1 G. 2006. The effect of different irrigation intervals and plant densities on yield and yield components of two fennel (Foenicolum vulgare) landraces.Iranian journal of field crops research 4(1), 131-140.
Maggs D.H. 1973. The pistachio as in Australian crop. Journal of Australian Institute of Agricultural 39, 10-17.
Maleki Farahani S, Abdollahi M. 2014. The effect of low irrigation on the growth, yield and yield components of two lallemantia sp. (royleana & iberica) from Mashhad and Urmia. Iranian journal of field crops research 12(3), 502-515.
Mehlenbacher S.A, Smith D.C. 1991. Partial self-compatibility in Tombul and Mentebello hazelnut. Euphytica 56, 231-236.
Mesejo C, Muñoz-Fambuena N, Reig C, Martinez-Fuentes A, Agusti M. 2014. Cell division interference in newly fertilized ovules induces stenospermocarpy in cross-pollinated citrus fruit. Plant Science 225, 86-94.
Miyajima D. 2006. Ovules that failed to form seeds in zinnia (Zinnia violacea Cav.). Scientia Horticulturae 107, 176-182.
Moazenpoor M. 1993. Evaluation of pistachio trees drought resistance and the best irrigation interval and depth. Iran Pistachio Research Institute 9, 144-181.
Mohamadi M. 2006. Soil Science, Sepehr publication. 245 pages.
Norozi M, ValizadehKaji B, Karimi R, Nikoogoftar Sedghi M. 2019. Effects of foliar application of potassium and zinc on pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Fruit Yield. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 6(1), 113-123.
Polito V.S. 1999. Seedless and partenocarpy in Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae): temporal changes in patterns of vascular transport to ovules. Annals of Botany 83, 363-368.
Pourmohammadali B, Hosseinifard S.J, Salehi M.H, Shirani H, EsfandiarpourBoroujeni I. 2019. Effects of soil properties, water quality and management practices on pistachio yield in Rafsanjan region, southeast of Iran. Agricultural Water Management 213, 894-902.
Salehi M.H, Hosseinifard J. 2012. Soil and groundwater relationships with pistachio yield in the Rafsanjan area, Iran. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 43, 660-671.
Sharifkhah M, Bakhshi D, Pourghayoumi M, Abdi S, Hokmabadi H. 2020. Effect of pollination time on yield and antioxidant properties of some pistachio cultivars. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 7(1), 51-58.
Shuraki Y.D, Sedgley M. 1996. Fruit development of Pistacia vera (Anacardiaceae) in relation to embryo abortion and abnormalities at maturity. Australian Journal of Botany 44 (1), 35-45.
Singh D.P, Riwar R.S. 1996. Effect of micronutrients on yield and quality of onion (Allium cepa L.) variety pusa Red. Horticulture 3(1), 111-117.
Soleimanzadeh A, Mozafari V, Tajabadipour A, Akhgar A. 2013. Effect of Zn, Cu, and Fe foliar application on fruit set and some quality and quantity characteristics of pistachio trees. South Western Journal of Horticulture, Biology and Environment 4(1), 19-34.
Stephenson A.G. 1981. Flower and fruit abortion: proximate cause and ultimate function. Annals Review of Ecology and Systematics 12, 253-279.
Sugihara S, Sunakawa S, Kilasara M, Kosaki T. 2010. Effect of land management and soil texture on seasonal variations in soil microbial biomass in dry tropical agro ecosystems in Tanzania. Applied Soil Ecology 44, 80-88.
Sukhvibul N, Whiley A.W, Smith M.K. 2005. Effect of temperature on seed and fruit development in three mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae 105, 467-474.
Tajabadipour. 2007. Sunburn in pistachio, Iran pistachio Quarterly, Issue 1, p. 51.
Tezerji Z.S. 2009. Determination of damages of pistachio twig borer moth Kermania pistaciella amsel, to fruit cluster of pistachio, Abstract book, 5thIntrernational Symposium on Pistachios & Almonds, October, 6-10, 2009 Sanliurfa- Turkey, pp, 102.
Thompson M.M, Liu L.J. 1973. Temperature fruit set and embryo sac development in Italian Prune. Journal of American Society for Horticultural Science 98, 163-197.
Travest A. 1993. Deceptive fruits reduce insect seed predation in Pistacia terebinthus L. Evolutionary Ecology 7, 357-361.
Verdu M, Gracia-Fayos P. 1998. Ecological causes, function, and evolution of abortion and parthenicarpy in Pistacia lentiscuc (Anacardiaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 76, 134-141.