Document Type : Research paper


1 Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agriculture and Natural Resources

2 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol

3 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shahrood



Various markers can be used for accurate identifications of plant genotypes and cultivars. Since microsatellite markers of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are abundant and reliably reproducible, 14 pairs were used for evaluating polymorphic levels among 33 apple genotypes. All 14 pairs of primers had high degrees of polymorphism, ranging from three alleles (in the case of primers CH01h01 and CH02d12) to 12 alleles in primer CH05d04. In total, 83 polymorphic alleles appeared in these 14 SSR loci (with an average of 5.92 alleles per gene locus), and the polymorphic information content averaged 0.71. Dendrograms for molecular data were drawn based on the UPGMA method, and genotypes were divided into six main groups. The genotypes of Shahrood 20 and Shahrood 21 (95%) had the highest similarity with each other, while Shahrood 3 and Palestinian Malayer (14%) had the lowest. Principal component analysis confirmed the results of cluster analysis to determine relationships between the genotypes.


Ahmad Dar J, Aijaz A, Wani T, Dhar M. 2019. Assessment of the Genetic Diversity of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) Cultivars Grown in the Kashmir Valley using Microsatellite Markers. Journal of King Saud University 31, 194–201.
Ariel C, Juan C, Acosta D, Godoy F, Carlos CJ, Cabrera R, Stan C. 2020. Functional characterization and in silico modelling of MdPSY2 variants and MdPSY5 phytoene synthases from Malus domestica. Journal of Plant Physiology 249, 153-166.
Ahmadi K, Gholizadeh H, Ebadzadeh HR, Hossinpour R, Hatami F, Abdshah H, Rezaei MM, Kazemifar R, Fazli Estabragh M. 2015. Agricultural statistics: Horticultural Plants. Iran's Ministry of Agriculture Press 156 pp. (in Persian).
Boteh Khak A, Talebi M, Seyyed Tabatabaei B, Hajj Najari H. 2018. Study of genetic variation among some Iranian apple populations and commercial cultivars using SSR and SRAP molecular markers. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 19, 226-213.
Cavanna M, Marinoni T, Beccaro G, Bounous G. 2008. Microsatellite-based evaluation of Ribes spp. Genomics-based plant germplasm research 52, 839-848.
Celton JM, Tustin DS, Chagné D, Gardiner SE. 2009. Construction of a dense genetic linkage map for apple rootstocks using SSRs developed from Malus ESTs and Pyrus genomic sequences. Tree Genetics and Genomes 5, 93–107.
Conner PJ, Brown SK, Weeden NF. 1997. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-based. Gentic linkage maps of three apple cultivars. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2, 350-359.
Doyle JJ, Doyle JL. 1987. A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin 19:11-15.
Ershadi A. 2003. Evaluation of genetic diversity of 23 Iranian apple varieties (Malus domestica Borkh.) using microsatellite markers. Thesis Master, University of Tehran. Iran 120 pp. (in Persian)
Farrokhi J, Darvishzadeh R, Naseri L, Mohseni Azar M, Hatami Maleki H. 2011. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Iranian apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) cultivars and landraces using simple sequence repeat markers. Australian Journal of Crop Science 5, 815-821.
Farrokhi J, Darvishzadeh R, Hatami Maleki H, Naseri LA, Asghari F. 2014. Identification of microsatellite markers associated with morphological and biochemical traits in Iranian native apple cultivars (Malus × domestica .Borkh). Agricultural Biotechnology Journal 6, 128-117 (in Persian).
Gahromee SR, Keshavarzi M, Naghavi MR, Damyar S, Zahravee M. 2009. Molecular identification of apple cultivars/rootstocks using SSR markers. Agricultural Biotechnology 1, 17-26 (in Persian).
Gharghani A, Solhjoo S, Oraguzie N. 2016. A review of genetic resources of pome fruits in Iran. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 63, 151–172.
Gianfranceschi J, Seglias N, Tarchini R, Komjanc M, Cgessler F. 1998. Simple sequence repeats for the genetic analgsis of apple. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 96, 1069-1076.
Goulao L, Cristina M, Oliveira R. 2001. Molecular characterisation of cultivars of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) Using microsatellite (SSR and ISSR) markers. Euphytica 122, 81–89.
Guilford P, Prakash S, Zhu JM, Rikkerink E, Gardiner S, Bassett H, Forster R. 1997. Microsatellites in Malus domestica (Apple): abundance, polymorphism and cultivar identification. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 94, 249-254.
Gharghani A, Zamani Z, Talaie A, Oraguzie NC, Fatahi R, Hajnajari H, Wiedow C, Gardiner SE. 2009. Genetic identity and relationships of Iranian apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars and landraces, wild Malus species and representative old apple cultivars based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker analysis. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 56, 829-842.
Harris SA, Robinson JP, Juniper BE 2002. Genetic clues to the origin of the apple. Trends in Genetics 18, 426- 430.
Hemmat M, Weeden NF, Mangaris AG, Laawson DM. 1994. Molecular marker linkage map for apple. Journal of Heredity 85, 4-11.
Hokanson SC, Lamboy WF, McFadden AK, Mc Ferson JR. 2001. Microsatellite (SSR) variation in a collection of Malus (apple) species and hybrids. Euphytica 118, 281-294.
Juniper BE, Watkins R, Harris SA. 1999. The origin of apple. Acta Horticulturae 484, 27-33.
Jahromi Shirazi R. 2008. Study of Genetic Relationships of Apple Cultivars and Bases Using the SSR Molecular Marker. Dissertation, Islamic Azad University Science and Research Branch, Iran.
Kenis K, Keulemans J. 2005. Genetic linkage maps of two apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers. Molecular Breeding 15, 205–219.
Li CD, Rossnagle BG, Scoles GJ. 2000. The development of oat microsatellites markers and their use in identifying relationships among Avena species and oat cultivars. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 101, 1259-1268.
Mahmoudi A, Yadollahi A, Mohammad Saltani B, Dhaghin L, Framarzi S. 2014. Use of microsatellite markers and upstream variability of transcription factor MYB10 in studying the genetic diversity of red meat in Iran. Genetic New 9, 150-143 .
Naghshin F, Behar M, Seyyed Tabataba'I B, Haji H. 2008. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Iranian 'Rose' apple
Hassani, Salehi Sardoei, Azad Ghouge Bigloo, Ghasemi and Ghorbanzadeh Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 2022 9(4): 487-496
cultures using microsatellite markers (SSRs). Journal of Iranian Horticultural Science and Technology 9, 82-69 (in persian).
Nicole L, Russo K. 2008. Fire blight resistance of budagovsky 9 apple rootstock. Plant Disease 92, 385-391.
Patzak JF, Paprstein A Henychova, Sedlak J 2012. Comparison of genetic diversity structure analyses of SSR molecular marker data within apple (Malus × domestica) genetic resources. Genome 55, 1-19.
Pereira LS, Ramos CA, Herna HA. 2007. Evaluation of genetic identity and variation of local apple cultivars (Malus×domestica Borkh.) from Spain using microsatellite markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 54, 405–420.
Powell W, Machray GC, Proven G. 1996. Polymorphism revealed by simple seqaence repeat. Trends in Plant Science 1, 215-222.
Richards CM, Volk GM, Reilley AA, Henk AD, Lockwood DR, Reeves PA, Forsline PL. 2009. Genetic diversity and population structure in Malus sieversii, a wild progenitor species of domesticated apple. Tree Genet Genomes 5, 339-347.
Sawamura Y, Satio T, Takada N, Yamamoto T, Kimura T, Hayashi T, Kotobuki K. 2004. Identification of parentage of Japanese pear Housui. Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 73, 511- 518.
Schmidt H, Vittup-Christensen J, Watkins R, Smith RA. 1985. Cherry Descriptor List. IBPGR. Rome, Italy.
Silfverberg-Dilworth E, Matasci CL, Van de Weg WE, Van Kaauwen MPW, Walser M, Kodde LP, Soglio V, Gianfranceschi L, Durel CE, Costa F, Yamamoto T, Koller B, Gessler C, Patocchi A. 2006. Microsatellite markers spanning the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome. Tree Genet Genomes 2, 202-224.
Salehieh Sardoei A, Nourbakhsh F. 2020. Principles and bases of molecular markers in the analysis of genetic diversity. (1st ed.). Nowruzi Press. 290 p.
Smolik M, Rzepka-Plevneš D, Stankiewicz I. 2004. Analysis of genetic similarity of apple tree cultivars. Folia Horticulturae 16, 87-94.
Wichmann B, Galli ZS, Molnar S, Galbacs ZS, Kiss E, Szabo T, Heszky L. 2007. Molecular identification of old Hungarian apple varieties . International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 13, 37-42.
Yamamoto T, Kimura T, Soejima J, Sandana T, Ban Y. 2004. Identification of quince varieties using SSR markers developed from pear and apple. Breeding Science 54, 239-244.