Document Type : Research paper


1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran



As a micronutrient, zinc (Zn) plays an essential role in various physiological processes of plants. Here, acclimatized samples of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.), chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), withania (Withania. coagulans) and purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.) were evaluated under aeroponic system conditions in order to explore the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). The plants were foliar sprayed with ZnO NP biofertilizer (0, 1, 2 and 3 g L-1) for 20, 40 and 60 days after transplanting. The experiments were performed based on a completely randomized design with five replications. The valerian showed that 3 g L-1 ZnO NPs caused the highest plant height, root length, leaf number per plant, root volume per plant, as well as fresh and dry weights of roots and shoots. The mean values in chicory showed that the plants that were treated with ZnO NPs (3 g L-1) had the highest amount of biomass and photosynthetic pigments. Based on the results of mean values in purple coneflower, ZnO NPs (3 g L-1) caused the largest increase in morphological values. Furthermore, comparing the mean values in the withania showed that the highest plant height, root length, leaf number per plant, root volume per plant, fresh and dry weights of roots and shoots were observed in plants treated with 3 g L-1 ZnO NPs. Therefore, Zn is considered as an essential micronutrient in the growth of these plants and could be prepared in nanosized form.


Abdelmalik AM, Alsharan TS, Al-Qarawi, AA, Ahmed AI, Aref IM. 2020. Response of growth and drought tolerance of Acacia seyal Del seedlings to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Plant. Soil and Environment 66, 264–271. https://doiorg/1017221/206/2020-PSE.
Mohit Rabary, Movahedi, Ghabooli and Rostami Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 2022 9(4): 445-452
Asad A, Rafique R. 2000. Effect of zinc, copper, iron, manganese and boron on the yield and yield components of wheat crop in Tehsil Peshawar. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 3(10), 1615-1620.
Ayad HS, Reda F, Abdalla MSA. 2010. Effect of putrescine and zinc on vegetative growth, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation and essential oil content of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.). World Journal of Agricultural Science 6(5), 601-608.
Cakmak I. 2008. Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: agronomic or genetic biofortification?. Plant and Soil 302 (1), 1 -17.
Dorais M, Papadopulos AP, Luo X, Leonart S, Goosselin A, Pedneault K, Angers P, Gaudreau L. 2001. Soilless greenhouse production of medicinal plants in northeastern Canada. Acta horticulturae 554, 297-303.
Efe L, Yarpuz E. 2011. The effect of zinc application methods on seed cotton yield, lint and seed quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in east Mediterranean region of Turkey. AfricanJournal of Biotechnology 10(44), 8782 - 8789.
El-MetwallyIM, Abd El-Salam MS, Osama AMA. 2015. Effect of zinc application and weed control on wheat yield and its associated weeds grown in zinc-deficient soil. International Journal of Chemtech Research 8(4),1588-1600.
Fahad S, Masood Ahmad KH, Akbar Anjum M, Hussain S. 2014. The effect of micronutrients (B, Zn and Fe) foliar application on the growth, flowering and corm production of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) in calcareous soils. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 16,1671-1682.
Farrag HF 2015. Evaluation of the growth responses of Lemnagibba L. (Duckweed) exposed to silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles. World Applied Sciences Journal 33(2),190-202.
Hao HL, Wei YZ, Yang XE, Feng Y, Wu CY. 2007. Effects of different nitrogen fertilizer levels on Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations in shoot and grain quality in rice (Oryza sativa). Rice Science 14 (4),289-294.
Ibrahim EA, Ramadan WA. 2015. Effect of zinc foliar spray alone and combined with humic acid or/and chitosan on growth, nutrient elements content and yield of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants sown at different dates. Scientia Horticulturae 184,101–105.
Jayarambabu N, Kumari BS, Rao KV, Prabhu YT. 2015. Beneficial role of zinc oxide nanoparticles on green crop production. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Advanced Research Trends 2(1), 273-282.
Jiang X, Zhang JC, Liu YW, Fang Y. 2007. Studies on chemical constituents of Valerianaofficinalis. Journal of Chinese medicinal materials 30(11), 1391-1393.
Kaya C, Higgs D. 2002. Response of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cultivars to foliar application of zinc when grown in sand culture at low zinc. ScientiaHorticulturae 93, 53-64.
Kaya C, Higgs D, Burton A. 1999. Foliar application of iron as a remedy for zinc toxic tomato plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition 22, 1829-1837.
Khalifa RKHM, Shaaban SHA, Rawia A. 2011. Effect of foliar application of zinc sulfate and boric acid on growth, yield and chemical constituents of Iris plants. Ozean Journal of Applied Sciences 4(2), 1-16.
Lichtenthaler HK. 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology 148, 350-382.
Lin D, XingB. 2008. Root uptake and phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles. Environmental science and technology 42(15), 5580-5585.
MalarzJ, Stojakowska A, Kisiel W. 2002. Sesquiterpene Lactones in a Hairy Root Culture of Cichorium intybus. ZeitschriftfürNaturforschung C. 57, 994-997
Maluin FN, Hussein MZ, Nik Ibrahim NN L, Wayayok A, Hashim N. 2021. Some Emerging Opportunities of Nanotechnology Development for Soilless and Microgreen Farming. Agronomy 11(6), 1213.
McGregor RL. 1968. Taxonomy of the genus Echinacea (Compositae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 48, 113–142.
MovahediZ, Moeini A, Soroushzadeh A. 2012. Comparison of aeroponics and conventional soil systems for potato minitubers production and evaluation of their quality characters. Journal of Plant Physiology and Breeding 2, 13-21.
Naderi MR, Danesh-Shahraki A. 2013. Nanofertilizers and their roles in sustainable agriculture. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 5(19), 2229.2232
Nahed GA, Balbaa LK. 2007. Influence of tyrosine and zinc on growth, flowering and chemical constituents of Salvia farinacea plants. Journal of Application Science Research 3(11), 1479-1489.
Negi MS, Sabharwal V, Wilson N, Lakshmikumaran MS. 2006. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of SAMPL and AFLP in assessing genetic relationships among Withaniasomnifera genotypes. Current Science 91( 4), 464-471.
Pavani KV; Divya V; Veena I; Aditya M, Devakinandan GVS. 2014. Influence of bioengineered zinc nanoparticles and zinc metal on Cicer arietinum seedlings growth. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology 2(4), 216-223.
Powell SR. 2000. The antioxidant properties of zinc, Journal of Nutrition 130, 1447-1449.
Pyrek JS. 1985. Sesquiterpene lactones of Cichorium intybus and Leontodon autumnalis Phytochemistry 24(1), 186 -188.
Reda F; Abdelhamid MT, El-Lethy SR. 2014. The role of Zn and B for improving Viciafaba L. tolerance to salinity stress. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research 3(4), 707-714.
Rhodus T. 1995. Top 20 perennials. Greenhouse Grower Jan. p. 80–84.
Mohit Rabary, Movahedi, Ghabooli and Rostami Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 2022 9(4): 445-452
Rosramifard S, Khourgami A, Rafee M, Nasrollahi H. 2012. Study the effect of zinc spraying and plant density on seed yield and morphological characteristics of Green gram. Annals of Biological Research 3(8), 4166-4171.
Said Al-Ahl H, Mahmoud A. 2010. Effect of zinc and iron foliar application on growth and essential oil of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) under salt stress. Ozean Journal of Applied Sciences 3(1), 97-111.
SalehiSardoei A, Shahdadneghad M, RohanyYazdi M, Mohammadi T. 2014. Effects of zinc sulfate and ascorbic acid on flowering characteristics of ornamental plant gazania (Gazania rigens) cv. Day Break Red Stripe. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research 2, 392-398.
Shokr MMB; Elsaid ME, Shafeek MR. 2014. Effect of some stimulative substances as foliar applications on snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity under milder thermo-stress of local summer season. Middle East Journal of Applied Sciences 4(2), 175-180.
Singh NB; Amist N; Yadav K; Singh D; Pandey JK, Singh SC. 2013. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as fertilizer for the germination, growth and metabolism of vegetable crops. Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanomanufacturing 3, 353-364.
Song CZ, Liu MY, Meng JF, Chi M, Xi ZM, Zhang ZW. 2015. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil. Molecules 20, 2536-2554.
Vafa ZN; Sirousmehr AR; Ghanbari A; Khammari I, Falahi N. 2015. Effects of nano zinc and humic acid on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of savory (Satureja hortensis L.). International Journal of Biosciences 6(3), 124-136.
Vavilov NL. 1951. The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants. ChronicaBotonica 13, 1–366.
Xi-Wen Y, Xiao-Hong L, Xin-Chun T, William GJ, Yu-Xian C. 2011. Foliar zinc fertilization improves the zinc nutritional value of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain.