Document Type : Research paper


1 Department of Horticultural Science, Yasuj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasuj, Iran Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security Research Group, Yasuj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasuj, Iran

2 Department of Agronomy, Yasuj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasuj, Iran

3 Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

4 Department of Horticultural Science, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran.

5 Institute of Pharmacy/Pharmacognosy, Center for Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80–82, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria



Seed priming is an established approach to the aim of accelerating germination and increasing germination percentage, which can be followed by high-quality seedlings and optimal plant growth. Culture media can influence the growth and nutritional status of seedlings at the nursery stage. In order to study the impact of seed priming and culture medium on germination performance and seedling growth, two separate laboratory and greenhouse experiments were planned in which the seeds and seedlings of sweet pepper and eggplant were subjected to various chemicals (i.e. growth regulators and nutrients) in the culture media. The results showed that the chemicals had a significant effect on seed priming by improving seed germination and root length in both plants. While putrescine improved seed germination, the highest germination percentage and root growth of both plants were observed in the salicylic acid treatment. Seed priming by humic acid was more effective than ZnSO4 and KNO3 in encouraging seed germination. The application of peat moss (solely or in combination with other culture media such as cocopeat and perlite) improved the growth parameters and nutritional status of commercially ready seedlings. The highest shoot weight (fresh and dry) in both plants were observed in seedlings grown on peat moss. Apart from improvements in vegetative features, peat moss enhanced the uptake and accumulation of nutrients such as N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, compared to cocopeat and perlite. In general, the results indicated that salicylic acid was the best priming treatment and peat moss was the best culture medium for the commercial production of eggplant and sweet pepper seedlings.
C: Cocopeat, Pe: Perlite, PM: Peat moss, P: Phosphorus, N: Nitrogen, Mg: Magnesium, K: Potassium, Ca: Calcium, SA: Salicylic acid, HA: Humic acid, GP: Germination percentage, Put: Putrescine, KNO3: Potassium nitrate, ZnSO₄: Zinc sulfate, DW: Distilled water, PAs:


Abdipour M, Hosseinifarahi M, Najafian S. 2019. Effects of Humic Acid and cow manure biochar (cmb) in culture medium on growth and mineral concentrations of basil plant. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 6(1), 27-38. doi: 10.22059/ijhst.2019.279022.287
Aboutalebi Jahromi A., Hosseini Farahi M. 2016. Seed germination, vegetative growth and concentration of some elements in French marigold (Tageta patula) as influenced by salinity and ammonium nitrate. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 3(2), 199-209. doi: 10.22059/ijhst.2017.212510.145.
Aghaye Noroozlo Y, Souri MK. Delshad M. 2019. Effects of foliar application of glycine and glutamine amino acids on growth and quality of sweet basil. Advances in Horticultural Science 33(4), 495-501.
Aghwani Shajari M, Nemati, S.H., Mehrbakhsh, MM Fallahi, J., Haghighi Tajour F. 2012. Evaluation of the effects of medium culture and irrigation intervals on seedling growth indices of tomato cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Horticultural Sciences 26 (1), 87-95. doi: 10.22067 / jhorts4.v0i0.12898
Ajouri A, Asgedom H, Becker M. 2004. Seed priming enhances germination and seedling growth of barley under conditions of P and Zn deficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 167, 630–636.
Albaho M, Bhat N, Abo-Rezq H, Thomas B. 2009. Effect of three different substrates on growth and yield of two cultivars of Capsicum annuum. European Journal of Scientific Research 28(2), 227-233.
Anaya F., Fghire R., Wahbi, S., and Loutfi K. 2018. Influence of salicylic acid on seed germination of Vicia faba L. under salt stress. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences 17(1), 1-8.
Ansari O, Chogazardi H, Sharifzadeh F, Nazarli H. 2012. Seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of treated seeds of mountain rye (Secale montanum) as affected by drought stress. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova 45, 43–48.
Arenas M, Vavrina CS, Cornell JA, Hanlon EA, Hochmuth GJ. 2002. Coir as an alternative to peat in media for tomato transplant production. HortScience 37, 309–312.
Ashraf M, Foolad MR. 2005. Pre-sowing seed treatment-A shotgun approach to improve germination, plant growth, and crop yield under saline and non-saline conditions. Advances in Agronomy 88, 223–271.
Aslani M and Souri MK. 2018. Growth and quality of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under foliar application of organic chelate fertilizers. Open Agriculture 3, 146–154.
Darvizheh H, Zahedi M, Abbaszadeh B, Razmjoo J. 2018. Effects of foliar application of salicylic acid and spermine on maternal plant under drought stress on germination indices of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea). Iranian Journal of Seed Research 5, 1–19.
Dias LLC, Santa-Catarina C, Silveira V, Pieruzzi F P, Floh E I S. 2009. Polyamines, amino acids, IAA and ABA contents during Ocotea catharinensis seed germination. Seed Science and Technology 37, 42–51.
Farsaraei S., Mehdizadeh L. and Moghaddam M. 2021. Seed priming with putrescine alleviated salinity stress during germination and seedling growth of medicinal pumpkin. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 1-11. Doi:
Hadi N, Souri MK., Omidbaigi, R. 2012. The effect of cold stratification and acid gibberllic pre-treatments on seed germination of Angelica archangelica, Tanacetum cinerariaefolium and Chelidonium majus. Agricultural Science and Technology 25 (4): 397-403.
Heidarian F., Roshandel P. 2021. Salicylic acid improves tolerance against salt stress through boosting antioxidant defense system in black bean. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 8(2), 175-189. doi: 10.22059/ijhst.2020.297885.345.
Hossinifarahi, Alah Moazen, Amiri, Jowkar and Mottaghipisheh Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 2022 9(4): 415-428
Hosseini A, Koocheki A. 2007. The effect of different priming treatments on germination percent and mean germination time of four varieties of sugar beet. Journal of Agronomic Research 5, 69–76.
Hosseini Farahi M, Zadehbagheri M. 2017. Effect of foliar application of polyamines on growth properties, vase life and endogenous plant growth regulators contents of cut rose flower (Rosa hybrida cv. Dolcvita). Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science 47, 717–729.
Hussein MM, Nadia EL, Gereadly HM, El-Desuki M. 2006. Role of putrescine in resistance to salinity of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). Journal of Applied Sciences Research 2, 598–604.
Kabiri R, Hatami A, Naghizadeh M. 2014. Effect of drought stress and its interaction with salicylic acid on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) germination and early seedling growth. Journal of Medicinal Plants and By-Product 2, 107-116.
Karami L, Hedayat M, Farahbakhsh S. 2020 Effect of salicylic acid priming on seed germination and morphophysiological and biochemical characteristics of tomato seedling (Lycopersicom esculentun). Iranian Journal of Seed Research 7 (1) :165-180
Khan H A, Ziaf K, Amjad M, Iqbal Q. 2012. Exogenous application of polyamines improves germination and early seedling growth of hot pepper. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 72, 429–433.
Klaring HP, Zude M. 2009. Sensing of tomato plant response to hypoxia in the root environment. Scientia Horticulturae 122, 17–25.
Liu J, Yu B, Liu Y. 2006. Effects of spermidine and spermine levels on salt tolerance associated with tonoplast H+-ATPase and H+-PPase activities in barley roots. Plant Growth Regulation 49, 119–126.
Liu Y., Xu H., Wen X. Xia Liao, Y. Cheng, 2016. Effect of polyamine on seed germination of wheat under drought stress is related to changes in hormones and carbohydrates. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 15, 2759.
Malassiotis A., Tanou, G, Diamantidis G., Patakas A. and Therios L. 2006. Effects of 4-month Fe deficiency exposure on Fe reduction mechanism, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant defense in two peach rootstocks differing in Fe deficiency tolerance. Journal of Plant Physiology 163, 176-185.
Mazari H., Delshad M., Kashi A. 2016. Study of the effect of substrates with different effective air-filled pore space on greenhouse tomato transplant growth. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science 47(3), 407–419.
Miar Sadegi S., Shekari F., Fotovat R. and Zangani E. 2011. The effect of priming by salicylic acid on vigor and seedling growth of canola (Brassica napus) under water deficit condition. Journal of Plant Biology 55-70.
Moazen H., Hosseinifarahi M and Amiri A. 2021. The effect of seed priming and media culture on germination characteristics and quality of tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Iranian Journal of seed Research 8(2):
Mofidpoor M., Krzic M. and Principe L. 2009. Effects of peat source and length of storage time in bales on selected properties of Sphagnum peat. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 89(5), 635-644.
Mohammadipour N, Souri MK. 2019. Effects of different levels of glycine in the nutrient solution on the growth, nutrient composition and antioxidant activity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Acta Agrobotanica 72(1), 1-9.
Molassiotis A, Tanou G, Diamantidis G, Patakas A, Therios I. 2006. Effects of 4-month Fe deficiency exposure on Fe reduction mechanism, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant defense in two peach rootstocks differing in Fe deficiency tolerance. Journal of Plant Physiology 163, 176–185.
Moradi A, Younesi O. 2009. Effects of osmo-and hydro-priming on seed parameters of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3, 1696–1700.
Murugesan P., Bijimol, G. and Haseela H. 2008. Effect of different substrates on growth of germinated oil palmhybrid seeds. Indian Journal of Horticulture 65(4), 477-480.
Najarian A, Souri M.K, 2020. Influence of sugar cane compost as potting media on vegetative growth, and some biochemical parameters of Pelargonium× hortorum. Journal of Plant Nutrition 43(17): 2680-2684.
Nawaz J, Hussain M, Jabbar A, Nadeem GA, Sajid M, Subtain M, Shabbir I. 2013. Seed priming a technique. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 6(20), 1373-1381.
Nouriyani H. 2019. Effect of seed priming on germination characteristics, biochemical changes and early seedling growth of sesame (Sesamum indicum). Iranian Journal of Seed Research 5, 43–58.
Patterson BD, MacRae EA, Ferguson IB. 1984. Estimation of hydrogen peroxide in plant extracts using titanium (IV). Analytical Biochemistry 139, 487–492.
Pedraza RO, Motok J, Tortora ML, Salazar SM, Diaz-Ricci JC. 2007. Natural occurrence of Azospirillum brasilense in strawberry plants. Plant and Soil 295, 169–178.
Saberi Z, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Kalbasi M, Mobli M, Haghighi M. 2013. The effect of different soilless media on macro-and micronutrients uptake by cherry tomato. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture 4, 77–87.
Safarizadeh-Sani A, Hossein B, Goldani M, Gholizadeh M. 2020. Evaluation of the effects of seed priming on growth properties of sweet pepper under irrigation with magnetized water. Iranian Journal of Irrigation
Hossinifarahi, Alah Moazen, Amiri, Jowkar and Mottaghipisheh Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 2022 9(4): 415-428
and Drainage 14(2), 436-445.
Sakhabutdinova AR, Fatkhutdinova DR, Bezrukova MV, Shakirova FM. 2003. Salicylic acid prevents the damaging action of stress factors on wheat plants. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Physiology 21: 314-319.
Sappalani G., Cabahug L., Valleser V. 2021. Impact of gibberellic acid and organic growth media on seed germination and seedling development of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 8(2), 165-174. doi: 10.22059/ijhst.2020.309296.385.
Shabani T, Peyvast G, Olfati J. 2011. Effect of different substrates on quantitative and qualitative traits of three pepper cultivars in soilless culture. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture 2, 11–21.
Shaghaghy A., M.M. Jowkar A. Alirezalu and M. Omidi Ghaleh Mohammadi. 2019. Impact of saline water irrigation on some physiological and biochemical features of Rosa chinensis cv ‘Old Blush’. Iranian Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 19 (3), 325-340.
Shakirova FM, Sakhabutdinova RA, Bezrukova MV, Fatkhutdinova RA, Fatkhutdinova DR. 2003. Changes in the hormonal status of wheat seedlings induced by salicylic acid and salinity. Plant Science 164: 317- 322.
Shekari F, Pakmehr A, Rastgoo M, Vazayefi M, Ghoreyshi Nasab MJ. 2011. Effect of seed priming with Salicylic Acid on some of physiological traits in Vigna unguiculata L. under drought stress. Journal of Agriculture Science 4 (13), 13-29.
Souri MK, Hatamian M, Tesfamariam T.. 2019a. Plant growth stage influences heavy metal accumulation in leafy vegetables of garden cress and sweet basil. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture 6(1), 1-7.
Souri MK, Hatamian M. 2019. Aminochelates in plant nutrition; a review. Journal of Plant Nutrition 42 (1), 67-78.
Souri MK, Naiji M, Kianmehr MH. 2019b. Nitrogen release dynamics of a slow release urea pellet and its effect on growth, yield, and nutrient uptake of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Journal of Plant Nutrition 42(6), 604-614.
Szepesi A, Csiszár J, Bajkán S, Gémes K. and Horváth F. 2005. Role of salicylic acid pre-treatment on the acclimation of tomato plants to salt- and osmotic stress. Acta Biologica Szegediensis 49, 123-125.
Tabatabaei SA, Ansari O. 2016. Effect of cu (SO4) stress and plant growth regulators on germination characteristics and biochemical changes of Brassica napus. Iranian Journal of Seed Research 3 (1), 109-121.
Tang W, Newton RJ. 2004. Increase of polyphenol oxidase and decrease of polyamines correlate with tissue browning in Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.). Plant Science 167, 621–628.
Tavili A, Saberi M, Shahriari A, Heidari M. 2013. Salicylic acid effect on Bromus tomentellus germination and initial growth properties under cadmium stress. Journal of Plant Research 26(2), 208-216.
Tombegavani S, Zahedi B, Mousavi Fard S, Ahmadpour A. 2020. Response of germination and seedling growth of pepper cultivars to seed priming by plant growth regulators. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 7(1), 59-68. doi: 10.22059/ijhst.2020.274293.275
Tüzel Y, Tüzel İH, Gül A, Eltez RZ. 2002. Comparison of open and closed systems on yield and quality of greenhouse grown tomatoes. Acta Horticulturae, 579, 585-590.
Yazdanpanah S, Baghizadeh A, Abbassi F. 2011. The interaction between drought stress and salicylic and ascorbic acids on some biochemical characteristics of Satureja hortensis. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6, 798–807.
Zhang M, Wang Z, Yuan L, Yin C, Cheng J, Wang L, Zhang H. 2012. Osmopriming improves tomato seed vigor under aging and salinity stress. African Journal of Biotechnology 11(23), 6305-6311.