Abbott L. K, Murphy D. V.2007. Soil Biological Fertility. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherland.
Abenavoli L, Izzo A.A, Milić N, Cicala C, Santini A, Capasso R. 2018. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum): A concise overview on its chemistry, pharmacological, and nutraceutical uses in liver diseases. Phytotherapy Research 32(11), 2202-2213.
Alikaridis F, Papadakis D, Pantelia K, Kephalas T. 2000. Flavonolignan production from Silybum marianum transformed and untransformed root cultures. Fitoterapia 71(4), 379-384.
Amooaghaie R, Mostajeran A. 2007. The Symbiosis (Plant-Bacteria Assistance Systems). Vol, 3. Isfahan University Press, Isfahan, Iran.
Amuamuha L, Pirzad A, Hadi H. 2012. Effect of varying concentrations and time of nano-iron foliar application on the yield and essential oil of Pot marigold. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 3(10), 2085-2090.
Arouiee H, Mohammady S, Farzaneh A, Fatemi H, Nezami S, Aminifard M. 2011. The study on the effect of different manure and plants density on the growth and some quantitative characteristics of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.). Planta Medica 77(12), PM220.
Azad H, Fakheri B, Mehdi N.N, Parmoon G. 2017. Response of different irrigation on nano iron chelated to chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) genotypes. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology 11 (43), 565-584.
Cesco S, Neumann G, Tomasi N, Pinton R, Weisskopf L. 2010. Release of plant-borne flavonoids into the rhizosphere and their role in plant nutrition. Plant and Soil 329(1-2), 1-25.
Chen M, Yang G, Sheng Y, Li P, Qiu H, Zhou X, Chao Z. 2017. Glomus mosseae inoculation improves the root system architecture, photosynthetic efficiency and flavonoids accumulation of liquorice under nutrient stress. Frontiers in Plant Science 8, 931-941.
Dobereiner J, Pedrosa F.O. 1988. Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria in Nonleguminous Crop Plants. Science Tech Publishers, Michigan, United States.
Fallahi H.R, Ghorbany M, Samadzadeh A, Aghhavani-Shajari M, Asadian A.H. 2016. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and humic acid application on growth and yield of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and its mycorrhizal colonization index under deficit irrigation. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 3(2), 113-128.
Fatahi-Siahkamari S, Arouei H, Azizi M, Salehi Sardoei A. 2020. Effect of nano chelates (iron and zinc) and nitrogen (biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer) on some morphophysiological characteristics and essential oil yield of two basil populations. Eco-phytochemical Journal of Medicinal Plants 29, 106-118.
Ghafari H, Razmjoo J. 2013. Effect of foliar application of nano-iron oxidase, iron chelate and iron sulphate rates on yield and quality of wheat. International Journal of Agronomy and plant production 4(11), 2997-3003.
Gholinezhad E. 2017. Effect of drought stress and Fe nano-fertilizer on seed yield, morphological traits, essential oil percentage and yield of dill (Anethum graveolens L.). Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 20(4), 1006-1017.
Ghouchani R, Abbaspour H, Rusta M.J, SaidiSar S, Saed-Moucheshi A. 2014. Mycorrhizal inoculation can decreases negative effect of salinity on safflower varieties. International Journal of Biosciences 5(11), 76-85.
Goldstein A.H, Liu S.T. 1987. Molecular cloning and regulation of a mineral phosphate solubilizing gene from Erwinia herbicola. Nature Biotechnology 5(1), 72-74.
Gresta F, Avola G, Guarnaccia P. 2007. Agronomic characterization of some spontaneous genotypes of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.) in Mediterranean environment. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants 12(4), 51-60.
Hasanloo T, Khavari-Nejad R.A, Majidi E, Shams-Ardakani M.R.2005. Analysis of flavonolignans in dried fruits of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn from Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 8(12), 1778-1782.
Hassan S, Mathesius U. 2012. The role of flavonoids in root–rhizosphere signalling: opportunities and challenges for improving plant–microbe interactions. Journal of Experimental Botany 63(9), 3429-3444.
Hendawy S.F, Hussein M.S, Youssef A.E.A, El-Mergawi R.A. 2013. Response of Silybum marianum plant to irrigation intervals combined with fertilization. Nusantara Bioscience 5(1), 22-29.
Hevia F, Wilckens R.L, Berti M.T, Fischer S.U. 2007. Quality of milk thistle (Silybum marianum
(L.) Gaertn.) Harvested in different phenological stages. Informacion Tecnologica
Imran M, Gurmani Z. A. 2011. Role of macro and micro nutrients in the plant growth and development. Science, Technology and Development 30(3) 36-40.
Ismail E.G, Mohamed W.W, Khattab S, Sherif F.E. 2013. Effect of Manure and Bio-fertilizers on Growth, Yield, Silymarin content, and protein expression profile of Silybum marianum. International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 3(4), 430-438.
Kader M.A, Mian M.H, Hoque M.S.2002. Effects of Azotobacter inoculant on the yield and nitrogen uptake by wheat. Journal of Biological Sciences 2(4), 259-261.
Kapoor R, Giri B, Mukerji K.G. 2004. Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in Foeniculum vulgare on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer. Bioresource Technology 93(3), 307-311.
Karagiannidis N, Thomidis T, Lazari D, Panou-Filotheou E, Karagiannidou C. 2011. Effect of three Greek arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in improving the growth, nutrient concentration, and production of essential oils of oregano and mint plants. Scientia Horticulturae 129(2), 329-334.
Karimzedah G, Omidbaigi R, Bakhshai D. 2001. Influence of irrigation and row spacing on the growth, seed yield and active substance of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 7(3-4), 78-81.
Karkanis A, Bilalis D, Efthimiadou A. 2011. Cultivation of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), a medicinal weed. Industrial Crops and Products34(1), 825-830.
Keshavarz Afshar R, Chaichi M.R, Rezaei K, Asareh M.H, Karimi M, Hashemi M. 2015. Irrigation regime and organic fertilizers influence on oil content and fatty acid composition of milk thistle seeds. Agronomy Journal 107(1), 187-194.
Keshavarz Afshar R.K, Chaichi M.R, Assareh M.H, Hashemi M, Liaghat A. 2014. Interactive effect of deficit irrigation and soil organic amendments on seed yield and flavonolignan production of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.). Industrial Crops and Products 58, 166-172.
Kim N.C, Graf T.N, Sparacino C.M, Wani M.C, Wall M.E. 2003. Complete isolation and characterization of silybins and isosilybins from milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 1(10), 1684-1689.
Komatsuzaki M, Ohta H. 2007. Soil management practices for sustainable agro-ecosystems. Sustainability Science 2(1), 103-120.
Kordi H, Aghdasi M, Khalafi M. 2013. An investigation on flavonolignans in different organs of Silybium marianum L. in Gorgan region. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research 29(3), 651-665.
Krystofova O, Sochor J, Zitka O, Babula P, Kudrle V, Adam V, Kizek R. 2013. Effect of magnetic nanoparticles on tobacco BY-2 cell suspension culture. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health10(1), 47-71.
Kutchan T.M. 2001. Ecological arsenal and developmental dispatcher. The paradigm of secondary metabolism. Plant Physiology 125(1), 58-60.
Lal R. 2006. Enhancing crop yields in the developing countries through restoration of the soil organic carbon pool in agricultural lands. Land Degradation & Development 17(2), 197-209.
Malekzadeh M, Mirmazloum S.I, Mortazavi S.N, Panahi M, Angorani, H.R. 2011. Physicochemical properties and oil constituents of milk thistle (Silybum marianum Gaertn. cv. Budakalszi) under drought stress. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5(13), 2886-2889.
Martin R.J, Lauren D.R, Smith W.A, Jensen D.J, Deo B, Douglas J.A. 2006. Factors influencing silymarin content and composition in variegated thistle (Silybum marianum). New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 34(3), 239-245.
McCully M.E. 2001. Niches for bacterial endophytes in crop plants: a plant biologist's view. Functional Plant Biology 28(9), 983-990.
Mohammadi M, Majnoun Hoseini N, Chaichi M.R, Alipour H, Dashtaki M, Safikhani, S. 2018. Influence of nano-iron oxide and zinc sulfate on physiological characteristics of peppermint. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 49(18), 2315-2326.
Motavalli P.P, Kelling K.A, Converse J.C. 1989. First‐year nutrient availability from injected dairy manure. Journal of Environmental Quality 18(2), 180-185.
Narayana K.R, Reddy M.S, Chaluvadi M.R, Krishna D.R. 2001. Bioflavonoids classification, pharmacological, biochemical effects and therapeutic potential. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 33(1), 2-16.
Nikkhah Naeeni F.N, Moghadam A.R.L, Moradi P, Rezaei M, & Abdoosi V. 2018. Quantitative and qualitative response of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) to application of humic acid and mycorrhizal fungi. Pakistan Journal of Botany 50(4), 1615-1620.
Pedone-Bonfim M.V.L, da Silva F.S.B, Maia L.C. 2015. Production of secondary metabolites by mycorrhizal plants with medicinal or nutritional potential. Acta physiologiae plantarum 37(2), 1-12.
Power J.F, Dick W.A, Kashmanian R M, Sims J. T, Wright R. J, Dawson M. D, Bezdicek D. 2000. Land Application of Agricultural, Industrial, and Municipal By‐Products. Soil Science Society of America Inc., Madison, United States.
Quercia V, Pierini N, Incarnato G.P, Papetti P, Gambero P. 1980. HPLC evaluation of the ratio between the antihepatotoxic constituents of Silybum marianum. Fitoterapia 51, 279-301.
Rahimi A, Kamali M. 2012. Different planting date and fertilizing system effects on the seed yield, essential oil and nutrition uptake of milk thistle (Silybum marianum Gaertn.). Advances in Environmental Biology 6(5), 1789-1796.
Ram G, Bhan M.K, Gupta K.K, Thaker B, Jamwal U, Pal S. 2005. Variability pattern and correlation studies in Silybum marianum Gaertn. Fitoterapia 76(2), 143-147.
Ražná K, Hlavačková L, Bežo M, Žiarovská J, Habán M, Sluková Z, Pernišová M. 2015. Application of the RAPD and miRNA markers in the genotyping of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica 18(4), 83-89.
Saad-Allah K. M, Fetouh M.I, Elhaak M.A. 2017. Induction of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn) growth and phytochemicals production by natural stimulants. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 6, 101-110.
Schmid J, Doerner P.W, Clouse S.D, Dixon R.A, Lamb C.J.1990. Developmental and environmental regulation of a bean chalcone synthase promoter in transgenic tobacco.Plant Cell 2(7), 619-631.
Shen N, Cui Y, Xu W, Zhao X, Yang L. 2017. Impact of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on growth and anthraquinone content in Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. Industrial Crops and Products 107, 312-319.
Shokrpour M, Gigloo M.T, Asghari A, Bahrampour S. 2011. Study of some agronomic attributes in milk thistle (Silybum marianum Gaertn.) ecotypes from Iran. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5(11), 2169-2174.
Stancheva I, Georgiev G, Geneva M, Ivanova A, Dolezal M, Tumova L. 2010. Influence of foliar fertilization and growth regulator on milk thistle seed yield and quality. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33(6), 818-830.
Subramaniam S, Vaughn K, Carrier D.J, Clausen, E.C. 2008. Pretreatment of milk thistle seed to increase the silymarin yield: an alternative to petroleum ether defatting. Bioresource Technology 99(7), 2501-2506.
Sure S, Arooie H, Sharifzade K, Dalirimoghadam R. 2012. Responses of productivity and quality of cucumber to application of the two bio-fertilizers (humic acid and nitroxin) in fall planting. Agricultural Journal 7(6), 401-404.
Tavallali V, Kiani M, Hojati S. 2019. Iron nano-
complexes and iron chelate improve biological activities of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 144, 445-454.
Urcoviche R.C, Gazim Z.C, Dragunski D.C, Barcellos F.G, Alberton O. 2015. Plant growth and essential oil content of Mentha crispa inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under different levels of phosphorus. Industrial Crops and Products 67, 103-107.
Vessey J.K. 2003. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant Soil 255(2), 571-586.
Watson R, Preedy V. 2010. Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health: Probiotics and Prebiotics. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.
Wu S.C, Cao Z.H, Li Z.G, Cheung K.C, Wong M.H. 2005. Effects of biofertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma 125(1-2), 155-166.
Yazdani Buick R, Khazaeii H.R, Rezvani Moghaddam P, Astaraei A. 2010. Effect of animal manures and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics medicinal plant milk thistle (Silybum marianum L). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Research 8(5), 738-746.
Yesil M, Kara K.2016. The effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus doses on essential oil components of some Mentha genotypes. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 40(6), 882-893.
Zare S. A, Fath A, Ayenehband A. 2013. Effect of different sowing dates and fertilizers of chemical, cow manure and combination (chemical + cow manure) on the amount of active ingredient medicinal plant in Milk thistle seeds (Silybum marianum L). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research29(4), 486-501.
Zhang C, Yang D, Liang Z, Liu J, Yan K, Zhu Y, Yang S. 2019. Climatic factors control the geospatial distribution of active ingredients in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in China. Scientific Reports 9(1), 1-11.