Document Type : Research paper

Authors

1 The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan

2 Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8560, Japan

10.22059/ijhst.2021.315746.428

Abstract

Time of planting is a normal part of any agricultural operation. It has a particularly importance in water-challenged areas where soil moisture is an issue. During the winter months in these areas, there is usually sufficient precipitation to maintain adequate water content levels in freshly planted trees. However, during the summer and early autumn, there is very little precipitation. This can adversely affect young trees. In this study, measurements were taken to determine root growth and variations in the upper parts of apple trees that were planted in the winter, compared to those planted in the spring when planting usually takes place. To do so, one-year-old 'Miyabi Fuji', grafted onto Marubakaido (Ma) (Malus prunifolia 'Ringo') and M.9 rootstocks, were examined from January through May. The results showed dramatic changes in root growth from March (average root length less than two cm before March) to May (average root length longer than 10 cm) for both rootstocks. Furthermore, trunk moisture content increased over time (51.8% in January and 56.1% in May on M.9). Although root growth in the young apple trees occurred, it is unknown if root water absorption began before or at the same time of the root growth. Root growth developed favorably because of the soil moisture generated by the winter precipitation. We found satisfactory root growth and tree moisture content changes in the trees used in the study, leading us to recommend winter planting in areas where water resources are limited in the non-winter months.

Keywords

1. Aniśko T, Lindstrom O.M. 1996. Cold hardiness and water relations parameters in Rhododendron cv. Catawbiense Boursault subjected to drought episodes. Physiologia Plantarum, 98(1), 147–155.
2. Arakawa O, Xu J, Asada T. 2014. Effect of Planting Season and Root Removal on Shoot Growth on One-year-old Apple Trees. Horticultural Research (Japan), 13(3), 261–265.
3. Bevington K.B, Castle W.S. 1985. Annual root
growth pattern of young citrus trees in relation to shooting growth, soil temperature, and soil water content. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 110(6), 840–845.
4. Budiarto R, Poerwanto R, Santosa E, Efendi D. 2019. A Review of Root Pruning to Regulate Citrus Growth. Journal of Tropical Crop Science, 6(01), 1–7.
5. Hu Z, Hu Q, Zhang C, Chen X, Li Q. 2016. Evaluation of reanalysis, spatially interpolated and satellite remotely sensed precipitation data sets in central Asia. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121(June), 5648–5663. 6. Kikuchi T, Shiozaki Y, Adachi T, Yassunaka F.S, Otake, Y, Nishide T. 2003. Growth responses from one-year-old apple branches to heading as a factor governing terminal shoot length in cultivars with different branching habits. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 72(6), 473-481.
7. Lopushinsky W, Max T.A. 1990. Effect of soil temperature on root and shoot growth and on budburst timing in conifer seedling transplants. New Forests, 4(2), 107–124.
8. Soejima J, Bessho H, Tsuchiya S., Komori S, Abe K., Kotoda N. 1998. Breeding of Fuji apples and performance on JM rootstocks. Compact Fruit Tree, 31(1), 22–24.
9. Turner N.C. 1981. Techniques and experimental approaches for the measurement of plant water status. Plant and Soil, 58(1), 339–366.
10. Van Hooijdonk B, Woolley D, Warrington I, Tustin S. 2011. Rootstocks modify scion architecture, endogenous hormones, and root growth of newly grafted "Royal Gala" Apple Trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 136(2), 93–102.
11. van Vuuren, D.P., Sala, O.E. and Pereira, H.M., 2006. The future of vascular plant diversity under four global scenarios. Ecology and Society, 11(2).