Document Type : Research paper


1 Horticultural Science Department, Agriculture and Natural Resources College, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran

2 Plant Protection Research Department, Hormozgan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Bandar Abbas, Iran

3 Hormozgan Department of Environmental laboratory


Investigating genetic diversity in plant species provides a platform for further insight in plant breeding and conservation. Therefore, in the present study genetic diversity of 13 geographically isolated genotypes of Zhumeria majdea, as a seriously endangered medicine plant growing exclusively in Hormozgan province (South of Iran) was studied. To do so, the leaf samples of Z. majdea were collected from the main growing habitats of this spices including Haji Abad, Geno and Bastak regions. The collected leaf samples were subjected to DNA extraction followed by PCR assay, using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) markers. Twelve markers produced totally 121 polymorphic bands and revealed a clear-cut among and within Z. majdea genotypes. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 86% and 14% variations within and among populations, respectively. Cluster analysis divided genotypes into four main groups. The first and second principle coordinates allocated 28.81% and 15.71% of the variations, respectively. In addition to the innate differences of the individuals, the high intra population variation of Z. majdea, can also be explained by differences in the presence or absence of endophytes and differences in the type and genetic pattern of their endophytes.


Agarwal M, Shrivastava N, Padh H. 2008. Advances in molecular marker techniques and their applications in plant sciences. Plant Cell Report 27, 617- 631. Doi:10.1007/s00299-008-0507-z.
2. Agostini G, Echeverrigaray S, Souza-Chies T.T. 2010. Genetic diversity of the endangered Brazilian endemic herb Cunila menthoides Benth. (Lamiaceae) and its implications for conservation. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 38, 1111-1115.
3. Alinezhad H, Baharfar R, Zare M, Azimi R, Nabavi S.F, Nabavi S.M. 2012. Biochemical activities of acetone extracts of Hyssopus angustifoliu. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica. Drug Research 69(4), 617-622.
Molecular Characterization of Zhumeria majdea Iranian Germplasms Using … 351
4. Ansari-Dogaheh M, Sharififar F, Arabzadeh A.M, Shakibaie M. 2013. Inhibitory effect of a standard extract of Zhumeria majdae Rech.f. and Wendelbo. against Herpes simplex-1 virus. Medical sciences 13, 755-760.
5. Arman, M., Yousefzadi, M., Ebrahimi, S.N. 2009. Antimicrobial activity and composition of the essential oil from Zhumeria majdae Rech. F. Wendelbo. Essential oil-bearing plants 12, 630-634.
6. Asadi M, Samsampour D, Sharifi-Sirchi GH, Sadeghi F. 2018. Assessment of genetic diversity in Salvadora persica L. based on liner simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genetic marker. Journal of Genetic Engineering and biotechnology 15(1), pp.151-160"
7. Bokhari M, Hedge I. 1976. Zhumeria (Labiatae): anatomy, taxonomy and affinities. Iran Journal of Botany 1(1), 1-10.
8. Brito F.A, Nizio D.A.C, Silva A.V.C, Diniz L.E.C, Rabbani A.R.C, Arrigoni-Blank M.F, Alvares-Carvalho S.V, Figueira G.M, Montanari Júnior I, Blank A.F. 2016. Genetic diversity analysis of Varronia curassavica Jacq. accessions using ISSR markers. Genetics and Molecular Research 15, 1-10.
9. Donoghue M.J. 2008. A phylogenetic perspective on the distribution of plant diversity. The National Academy of Sciences of the USA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(1), 11549-11555. Doi:10.1073/pnas.0801962105
10. Drew B.T, Sytsma K.J. 2011. Testing the monophyly and placement of Lepechinia in the Tribe Mentheae (Lamiaceae). Systematic botany 36, 1038-1049.
11. Erbano M, Schühli G.S, Santos E.P.D. 2015. Genetic Variability and Population Structure of Salvia lachnostachys: Implications for Breeding and Conservation Programs. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16, 7839-7850. Doi:10.3390/ijms16047839.
12. Feitosa-Alcantara R.B, Silva A.V.C, Blank AF, Almeida C.S, Alvares-Carvalho S.V, Arrigoni-Blank MF. 2017. Analysis of genetic diversity of Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit. Plants using ISSR markers. Genetics and Molecular Research 16 (3), 1-10.
13. Freeland J.R, Kirk H, Peterson S.D. 2011. Molecular ecology (2nd ed). Wiley-Blackwell, UK.
14. Frichot E, Schoville S.D, Bouchard G, Francois O. 2013. Testing for associations between loci
and environmental gradients using latent factor mixed models. Molecular Biology and evolution 30, 1687-1699.
15. Goodarzi F, Darvishzadeh R, Hassani A. 2015. Genetic analysis of castor (Ricinum communis. L), using ISSR markers. Journal of Plant Molecular Breeding 3(1), 18-34.
16. Hosseinzadeh H, Ramezani M, Fadishei M, Mahmoudi M. 2002. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Zhumeria majdaa extracts in mice and rats. Phytomedicine 9, 135-141.
17. Imani Z, Asgarpanah J, Hashemi F, Hashemi Hezaveh J. 2015. Composition and antifungal activity of Zhumeria majdae essential oil. Current Medical Mycology 1(4), 13-19.
18. Izaddoost M, Rustaiyan A, Niknejad A. 1983. Phytochemical study of Zhumeria majdae. London: Biochemical Society Transactions 54, 1023-1027.
19. Izaddoost M, Rustaiyan A. 1983. Phytochemical study on Zhumeria majdae. Fitoterapia 45, 70-76.
20. Khadivi-Khub A, Salehi-Arjmand H, Movahedi K, Hadian J. 2015. Molecular and morphological variability of Satureja bachtiarica in Iran. Plant Systematics and Evolution 301, 77-93.
21. Koohdar F, Sheidai M, Talebi S.M, Noormohammadi Z, Ghasemzadeh-Baraki S. 2016. Genetic diversity, population structure and morphological variability in the Lallemantia royleana (Lamiaceae) from Iran. Phytologia balcanica 22(1), 29-38.
22. Laird S.A, Ten kate K. 2002. Linking biodiversity prospecting and forest conservation. In Pagiola, S., J, Bishop, and N, Landell-Mills, Selling Forest Environmental Services: Market-based mechanisms for conservation. Earthscan, London 151-172.
23. Mandegary A, Sharififar F, Abdar M, Arab-Nozari M. 2012. Anticonvulsant activity and toxicity of essential oil and methanolic extract of Zhumeria majdae Rech, a unique Iranian plant in mice. Neurochemical Research 37, 2725-2730.
24. Moein M.R, Pawar R.S, Khan S.I, Tekwani B.L, Khan I.A. 2008. Antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of 12, 16-dideoxy aegyptinone B from Zhumeria majdae Rech. F & Wendelbo. Phytotherapy Research 22, 283-285.
352 Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol; Vol. 7, No. 4; December 2020
25. Mohammadi F, Sharifi-Sirchi Gh, Samsampour D. 2017. Morphological, genetic and pigment diversity of Nerium indicum Mill in Iran. Cellular and Molecular Biology 63(9), 64-70.
26. Peakall R, Smouse P.E. 2012. GeneAlex 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research--an update. Bioinformatics Oxford Journals 28(19), 2537-2539.
27. Powell W, Morgante M, Andre C, Vogel J, Tingey S, Rafalski A. 1996. The comparison of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and SSR (microsatellite) markers for germplasm analysis. Molecular Breeding 2(3), 225-238.
28. Qiu, Y.X., Fu, C.X. and Wu, F.J., 2003. Analysis of population genetic structure and molecular identification of Changium smyrnioides and Chuanminshen violaceum with ISSR marker. Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi. China journal of Chinese materia medica 28(7), 598-603.
29. Rechinger K.H, Wendelbo P. 1967. Zhumeria majdae. Nytt. Magazine Botanikk 14 (1), 39-43.
30. Rechinger K. 1982. Flora Iranica, Labiatae, Akademische Druke- u. Verlagsanstalt. Graz Austria 150, 479-480.
31. Rodrigues L, Van den Berg C, Póvoa O, Monteiro A. 2013. Low genetic diversity and significant structuring in the endangered Mentha cervina populations and its implications for conservation. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 50, 51-61. http://
32. Rodrigues L, Póvoa O, Berg C.V.D, Figueiredo A.C, Moldao M. 2013. Genetic diversity in Mentha cervina based on morphological traits, Essential oils profile and ISSRs markers. Biochemical Systematic and Ecology 51, 50-59.
33. Rohlf F.J. 1998. On applications of geometric morphometrics to studies of ontogeny and phylogeny. Systematic Biology 47(1), 147-158.
34. Rustaiyan A, Samadizadeh M, Habibi Z, Jakupovic J. 1995. Two diterpenes with rearranged abietane skeletons from Zhumeria majdae. Phytochemistry 39, 163-165.
35. Safaei M, Sheidai M, Alijanpoor B, Noormohammadi Z. 2016. Species delimitation and genetic diversity analysis in Salvia with the use of ISSR molecular markers. Acta Botanica Brasilica. Croat 75 (1), 45-52. DOI: 10.1515/botcro-2016-0005.
36. Sambrook J, Russell R.W. 2001. Molecular Cloning: a laboratory manual, 3rd Edition. Cold
Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Cold spring harbor, N.Y.
37. Sharififar F, Khazaeli P, Alli N, Talebian E, Zarehshahi R, Amiri S. 2012. Study of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of certain Iranian medicinal plants. Journal of Intercut Ethnopharmacol 1, 19-24.
38. Soltanipoor M.A, Hesamzadeh Hejazi S.M., Jonoubi P. 2017. Karyotypic studies in eight populations of Zhumeria majdae Rech. f. and Wendelbo from Iran. International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics 70(3), 222-228. DOI: 10.1080/00087114.2017.1327268
39. Strasburg J.L, Sherman N.A, Wright K, Mmoyle L.C, Willis J.H, Rieseberg L.H. 2012. What can patterns of differentiation across plant genomes tell us about adaptation and speciation? Philosophical Transaction of Royal Society B 367, 364-373.
40. Strobel G, Daisy B, Castillo U, Harper J. 2004. Natural products from endophytic microorganism. J Nat prod 67, 257-268.
41. Tero N, Aspi J, Siikamaki P, Jakalaniemi A, Tuomi J. 2003. Genetic structure and gene flow in a metapopulation of an endangered plant species, Silene tatarica. Molecular Ecology 12, 2073-2085.
42. Wang, B., Zhang, Y., Chen, C.B., Li, X.L., Chen, R.Y. and Chen, L., 2007. Analysis on genetic diversity of different Salvia miltiorrhiza geographical populations in China. Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi. China journal of Chinese materia medica, 32(19), 1988-1991.
43. Yeh F.C, Yang R, Boyle T.J, Ye Z, Xiyan J.M. 2000. PopGene 32, Microsoft Windows- based freeware for population genetic analysis, version 1.32. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Center. University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. [Electronic resource]. Available at: (accessed15.03.2014).
44. Yuan Z, Yin Y, Qu J, Zhu L, Li Y. 2007. Population genetic diversity in Chinese pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars revealed by fluorescent-AFLP markers. Journal of Genetics and Genomics 34(12), 1061-1071.
45. Zietkiewicz E, Rafalski A, Labuda D. 1994. Genome fingerprinting by Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) anchored PCR Amplification. Genomics 20(2), 176-183. Doi: 10.1006/geno.1994.1151.