Document Type : Research paper


1 MSc Student, Department of Horticulture, Lorestan University

2 Assistant Professor of Lorestan University

3 Educational Instructor of Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center


In order to study the germination and growth of pepper seeds, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted. The first factor was consisting of five cultivars of pepper (Marquiza, Cadia, California Wonder, California Wonder 310 and California Wonder 300) and the second factor was gibberellic acid with three levels (0 as control, 250 and 500 ppm), and the third factor was naphthalene acetic acid with three levels (0 as control, 50 and 100 ppm). The results showed that the highest germination percentage (89.9%- California-Wonder 310 cultivar), rate of germination (0.85- California-Wonder 310 cultivar), shoot height (95.99 mm- California Wonder 300 cultivar), shoot fresh weight (6.62 g- California Wonder 300 cultivar) root fresh weight (3.46g- California Wonder 300 cultivar), root length (15.85 cm- Marquiza cultivar), leaf length (5.36 cm-Cadia cultivar) and stem diameter (26.91mm- California Wonder 300 cultivar) were obtained from the concentration of 500 ppm GA3 and 100 ppm NAA. The maximum seed vigor index (749.6) was detected in 0 ppm GA3 and 100 NAA in California Wonder 300 cultivar. The 500 ppm concentration of GA3 and 0 NAA in California Wonder 310 cultivar caused the highest leaf number (3.96). No significant differences were obtained for leaf area and leaf width among all tested concentrations. It can be concluded that seed priming of pepper with plant hormones (GA3 and NAA) is a proper strategy for improving germination and growth traits of pepper plants.


1. Afzal I, Basra S.M.A, Shahid M, Farooq M, Saleem M. 2008. Priming enhances germination of spring maize (Zea mays L.) under cool conditions. Seed Science and Technology 36(2), 497-503.
Response of Germination and Seedling Growth of Pepper cultivars to … 67
2. Atia A, Debez A, Barhoumi Z, Smaoui A, Abdelly C. 2009. ABA, GA3, and nitrate may control seed germination of Crithmum maritimum (Apiaceae) under saline conditions. Comptes Rendus Biologies 332(8), 704-710.
3. Basra S.M.A, Farooq M, Wahid A, Khan M.B. 2006. Rice seed invigoration by hormonal and vitamin priming. Seed Science and Technology 34(3), 753-758.
4. Bewley J. D. 1997. Seed germination and dormancy. The plant cell 9(7), 1055.
5. Bosland P.W, Votava E. J, Votava E.M. 2012. Peppers: vegetable and spice capsicums. Wallingford, UK, Cabi.
6. Chaudhary B.R, Sharma M.D, Shakya S.M, Gautam D.M. 2006. Effect of plant growth regulators on growth, yield and quality of chilli (Capsicum annum L.) at Rampur, Chitwan. Journal of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science 27, 65-68.
7. Cheng Z, Bradford K.J. 1999.Hydrothermal time analysis of tomato seed germination responses to priming treatments. Journal of Experimental Botany 50(330), 89-99.
8. De Castro R.D, van Lammeren A. A, Groot S.P, Bino R. J, Hilhorst H.W. 2000. Cell division and subsequent radicle protrusion in tomato seeds are inhibited by osmotic stress but DNA synthesis and formation of the micro tubular cytoskeleton are not. Plant Physiology 122(2), 327-336.
9. Demir, I. and Van de Venter, H.A., 1999. The effect of priming treatments on the performance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) seeds under temperature and osmotic stress. Seed Science and technology, 27(3), pp.871-875.
10. Eisvand H.R, Fathi N, Goudarzi D. 2015. Effects of some PGRs on seedling emergence and CAT and POD activity of maize under low-temperature stress'. Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology 5(3), 1393-1402.
11. Finch-Savage W. E, Bassel G.W. 2015. Seed vigor and crop establishment: extending performance beyond adaptation. Journal of experimental botany 67(3), 567-591.
12. Finch-Savage W.E, Dent K.C, Clark L. J. 2004. Soak conditions and temperature following sowing influence the response of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds to on-farm priming (pre-sowing seed soak). Field Crops Research 90(2), 361-374.
13. Gavaskar D, Anburani A. 2004. Influence of plant growth regulators on growth attributes in
brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) cv. Annamalai. South Indian Horticulture 52 (1/6), 347-350.
14. Ghassemi-Golezani K, Asghar Aliloo A, Valizadeh M, Moghaddam M. 2008. Effects of hydro and osmo-priming on seed germination and field emergence of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 36 (1), 29-33.
15. Ghodrat V, Roosta M.J, Tadaion M.S. 2010. Effect of priming with Indole-butyric acid (IBA) on germination and growth of wheat under saline conditions. Proceeding of 11th Iranian Crop Science Congress, Environ. Sci. Res. Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, pp. 433.
16. Hartmann H.T, Kofranek A.M, Rubatzky V.E, Flocker W.J. 1988. Vegetable crops grown for underground parts. Plant Science: Growth, Development, and Utilization of Cultivated Plants. Prentice- Hall Inc.
17. Kanmegne G, Omokolo D.N. 2007. Effects of hormones applications on the germination of six populations of Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae) seeds. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 1(3), 255-261.
18. Kaur S, Gupta A.K, Kaur N. 2005. Seed priming Increases Crop yield possibly by Modulating enzymes of Sucrose metabolism in chickpea. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 191, 81-87.72.
19. Kaya M.D, Okçu G, Atak M, Çıkılı Y, Kolsarıcı Ö. 2006. Seed treatments to overcome salt and drought stress during germination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). European journal of agronomy 24(4), 291-295.
20. Khan A.A, Abawi G.S, Maguire J.D. 1992. Integrating matriconditioning and fungicidal treatment of table beet seed to improve stand establishment and yield. Crop science 32(1), 231-237.
21. Khan H.A, Pervez M.A, Ayub C.M, Ziaf K, Balal R.M, Shahid M.A, Akhtar N. 2009. Hormonal priming alleviates salt stress in hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Soil and Environment 28(2), 130-135.
22. Mohammadi L, Shekari F. 2015. Examination the effects of hydro-priming and priming by salicylic acid on lentil aged seeds. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 8(3), 420-426.
23. Parera C.A, Cantliffe D.J. 1994. Presowing seed priming. Journal of Horticultural Reviews 6, 109-141.
68 Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol; Vol. 7, No. 1; March 2020
24. Rana, D.K, Singh R.N. 2012. Influence of bio regulators on quantitative and qualitative parameters of sweet pepper under controlled condition. Progressive Horticulture 44(1), 96-100.
25. Rouhi H.R, Aboutalebian M.A, Moosavi S.A, Karimi F.A, Karimi F, Saman M, Samadi M. 2012. Change in several antioxidant enzymes activity of Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) by priming. International Journal of AgriScience 2(3), 237-243.
26. Saravaiya S.N, Koladiya P.B, Patel A.M, Patel D. A. 2010. Influence of foliar application of GA3 and NAA on growth, yield and quality of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cv. Golden Acre under South Gujarat conditions. Asian Journal of Horticulture 5 (2), 393-395.
27. Siddik M.A, Islam M.M, Hoque M.A, Islam S, Parvin S, Rabin M.H. 2015. Morpho-physiological and Yield Contributing Characters and Yield of Sesame with 1-Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA). Journal of Plant Sciences 3(6), 329-336.
28. Tabatabaei S.A. 2014. The effect halo-and hydro-priming on seed reserve utilization and seed germination of wheat seeds under salinity stress. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova 47(3), 39- 45.
29. Tian Y, Guan B, Zhou D, Yu J, Li G, Lou Y. 2014. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed
pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.). The Scientific World Journal 2014, 1-8.
30. Vijayakumari B. 2002. Influence of foliar spray by GA3 and IAA on the growth attributes of Andrographis paniculata (L.). Journal of Phytological Research 15 (2), 161-163.
31. Yamaguchi S. 2008. Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59, 225-251.
32. Yogananda D.K, Vyakaranahal B.S, Shekhargouda M. 2004. Effect of seed invigouration with growth regulators and micronutrients on germination and seedling vigour of Bell pepper cv. California wonder. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 17(4), 811-813.
33. Yuan-Yuan S.U.N, Yong-Jian S.U.N, Ming-Tian, W.A.N.G, Xu-Yi L.I, Xiang G.U.O, Rong H.U, Jun M.A. 2010. Effects of seed priming on germination and seedling growth under water stress in rice. Acta Agronomica Sinica 36(11), 1931-1940.
34. Zimmer A. R, Leonardi B, Zimmer E. R, Kalinine E, de Souza D.O, Portela L.V, Gosmann G. 2012. Long-term oral administration of Capsicum baccatum extracts does not alter behavioral, hematological, and metabolic parameters in CF1 mice. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 1-9.