Document Type : Research paper


1 Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Islamic Republic of Iran

2 Horticultural Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran

3 Damghan Pistachio Station, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Semnan Province (Shahrood), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Islamic Republic of Iran


To obtain the best quality and quantity of pistachio fruits, knowing the most suitable time of pollination, is of paramount importance. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of pollination time, different stages of female flower development, including A (lower florets opened and clusters were green), B (lower and medial florets opened and clusters were green), C (all florets opened and clusters were light green), D (the stigma in the lowest florets was light pink), and E (the stigma in the lowest and medial florets was pink) on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of fruits in three pistachio cultivars (‘Ghermez Peste’, ‘Kal Khandan’, and ‘Kaleh Bozi’). Results showed that the highest yield in ‘GhermezPeste’ obtained when the manual pollination carried out at the stage that the cluster were green (early flowering period) while the highest yield In ‘KalKhandan’ and ‘KalehBozi’ were observed when the pollination carried out at the full bloom stage. The highest amount of total phenolics, total flavonoid, and antioxidant activity of fruits observed when pollination carried out at the stage that lower florets opened and clusters were green. The Lowest amount of total flavonoid and antioxidant capacity were obtained in the fruits that pollination carried out in the stage that the stigma in middle and lower florets were pink. As a first step towards identifying the best time for manual pollination of pistachio trees, our results showed manual pollination in the suitable blooming stage led to higher yield and quality of pistachio nuts.


1. Aliakbarkhani S.T, Farajpour M, Asadian A.H, Aalifar M, Ahmadi S, Akbari M. 2017. Variation of nutrients and antioxidant activity in seed and exocarp layer of some Persian pistachio genotypes. Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 62, 39-44.
58 Int. J. Hort. Sci. Technol; Vol. 7, No. 1; March 2020
2. Bellomo M., Fallico B. 2007. Anthocyanins, chlorophylls and xanthophylls in pistachio nuts (Pistacia vera) of different geographic origin. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 20, 352-359.
3. Barzamini S, Fotouhi Ghazvini R. 2017. Pollinizer Influence on Fruit Quality Traits in Japanese Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.). International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology. 4, 229-237.
4. Du G, Li M, Ma F, Liang D. 2009. Antioxidant capacity and the relationship with polyphenol and vitamin C in Actinidia fruits. Food Chemistry. 113, 557-562.
5. FAO, 2016. FAOSTAT Production Crops. M, Zribi F, Mimoun M.B, Rhouma A. 2012. Morphological investigation of genetic diversity of pistachio (Pistacia vera) germplasm in arid land of Tunisia. Plant Ecology and Evolution. 145, 363-372.
6. Iisfendiyaroglu M, Ozeker E, Misrili A, Saglam H. 2001. Determination of pollinator characteristics of different Pistachiospp. in Manisa- Yunt mountain area. In : Ak B.E. (ed.). XI GREMPA Seminar onPistachios and Almonds. Zaragoza: CIHEAM, 2001 (Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes), 56,267-270.
7. Iqbal M, Jatoi S, Niamatullah M, Munir M, Khan I. 2014. Effect of pollination time on yield and quality of date fruit. Journal of Animal and Plant Science. 24, 760-764.
8. Kardoush M, Dairy M.A, Shdeifat S, Albashabsheh N. 2009. Effect of some local pollinators on fruit characteristics of three pistachio cultivars in Aleppo area. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 5, 255-260.
9. Karimi H.R, Zeraatkar H. 2016. Effects of artificial pollination using pollen suspension spray on nut and kernel quality of pistachio cultivar Owhadi. International Journal of Fruit Science. 16, 171-181.
10. Mohammadi N, Rastgoo S, Izadi M. 2017. The strong effect of pollen source and pollination time on fruit set and the yield of tissue culture-derived date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) trees cv. Barhee. Scientia Horticulturae. 224, 343-350.
11. Mirzaei A, Mohammadi J, Mirzaei N, Mirzaei M. 2011. The antioxidant Capacities and total phenolic contents of some medicinal plants in Iran. Journal of Fasa University of medicinal sciences. 3, 160-166.
12. Murugan R, Parimelazhagan T. 2014."Comparative evaluation of different extraction
13. of pistachio nuts. Ph.D Thesis, University of C¸ukurova, Faculty of Agriculture.
14. Navarro J.M, Flores P, Garrido C, Martinez V. 2006. Changes in the contents of antioxidant compounds in pepper fruits at different ripening stages, as affected by salinity. Food Chemistry. 96, 66-73.
15. Ozeker E, Isfendiyaroglu M, Misirli A. 2006. Comparison of different Pistacia spp. in terms of pollination biology in the Yunt Mountains of Manisa Province in Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 9, 371-376.
16. Pourghayoumi M, Bakhshi D, Rahemi M, Jafari M. 2012. Effect of pollen source on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dried figs (Ficus carica L.) cvs ‘Payves’ and ‘Sabz’ in Kazerun – Iran. Scientia Horticulturae. 147, 98-104.
17. Pazouki L, Mardi M, Shanjani P.S, Hagidimitriou M, Pirseyedi S.M, Naghavi M.R, Avanzato D, Vendramin E, Kafkas S, Ghareyazie B. 2010. Genetic diversity and relationships among Pistacia species and cultivars. Conservation Genetics. 11, 311-318.
18. Pourghayoumi M, Bakhshi D, Rahemi M, Noroozisharaf A, Jafari M, Salehi M, Chamane R, Hernandez F. 2016. Phytochemical attributes of some dried fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit cultivars grown in Iran. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus. 81, 161-166.
19. Singleton V.L, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós R.M. 1999. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent, Methods in Enzymology. Elsevier, pp. 152-178.
20. Talebi M, Akbari M, Zamani M, Sayed-Tabatabaei B.E. 2016. Molecular polymorphism in Pistacia vera L. using non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. 14, 31-37.