Effect of Ultrasonic Atomizer on the Yield and Yield Components of Tomato Grown in a Vertical Aeroponic Planting System

Document Type: Research paper


1 Department of Agricultural Mechanization, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural Machinery Mechanics, College of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman

3 Department of Agricultural Management, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran


Aeroponic planting is proved to be the one of the most efficient growing environments for many vegetable crops. In this technique, plants are cultivated in absence of soil and the required nutrients are directly supplied to the roots through a fogging system. In modern sprayers, water is atomized by means of ultrasound waves. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ultrasound waves on the nutrient solution and on yield and some yield components of tomato grown in a vertical aeroponic planting system. The investigation was conducted using a 3×3 factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design. The considered factors were ultrasonic frequency at three levels of 50 kHz, 107 kHz and 2.1 MHz and the fogging duration at three levels of 10, 15 and 20 min. The results indicated that, at frequency of 50 MHz, the nutrient solution had the lowest EC equivalent while the pH of the nutrient solution reached its highest value at 2.1 MHz. Generally, both EC and pH value of the nutrient solution were elevated by increase in the wave frequency, but they did not show a definite trend by changes in fogging duration. The ANOVA indicated that the interaction effect of the ultrasound frequency and fogging period had significant effect on the plant height, root weight and length, fruit weight, fruit length, plant yield and system performance. In general, the measured yield components decreased as frequency of the waves increased and the best results were obtained at 50 kHz frequency and 15 min fogging period.


  1. Adams P, Ho L.C. 1992. The susceptibility of modern tomato cultivars to blossom-end rot in relation to salinity. Journal of Horticultural Science 67, 827-839.
  2. Barak P, Smith J, Kruger A.R, Peterson L.A. 1996. Measurement of short-term nutrient uptake in cranberry by aeroponics. Plant Cell and Environment. 19 (2), 237-242.
  3. Baudin W, Nono R, Wodmin N, Lutaladio A, Hoder N, Castila C, Leonardi S, Pascale S, Qaryouti M. 2013., “Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations”, Rome, Journal of Sensors 13 Eds. 303-354.
  4. Christie C.B, Nicholas M.A. 2004. “Aeroponics-a production system and research tool. Acta Horticulturae. South Pacific Soilless Culture Conference 185-190.
  5. Doosti M.R, Kargar R, Sayadi M.H. 2012. Water treatment using ultrasonic assistance: A review Environment and Civil Eng. Dept., University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 2(2), 96-110.
  6. Gao J, Zhang J, Lu, D. 2016. “Design and atomization experiments of an ultrasonic atomizer with a levitation mechanism”. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 32(4), 353-360.
  7. Hamlin, R.L, Barker V.A. 2006. “Influence of ammonium and nitrate nutrition on plant growth and zinc accumulation by Indian mustard”. Plant Nutrient 29, 1523-1541.
  8. Hayden A.L, Giacomailli G.A, Yokelson T, Hoffmann J.J. 2004. “Aeroponics: An alternative production system for high-value root crops”. Acta Horticulturae 207-213.
  9. Hayden A.L. 2006. “Aeroponic and hydroponic systems for medicinal herb rhizome, and root crops”. Horticultural Science 41, 16-18.

10. Kalantari S, Hatami M, Delshad M. 2015. Diverse postharvest responses of tomato fruits at different maturity stages to hot water treatment. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 2(1), 67-74.

11. Lakhiar I.A, Gao J, Syed T.N, Chandio F.A, Buttar N.A. 2018. “Modern plant cultivation technologies in agriculture under controlled environment”: A review on aeroponics. Journal of Plant Inter. 13(1), 338-358.

12. Lakhiar I.A, Liu X, Wang G, Gao J. 2018. “Experimental study of ultrasonic atomizer effects on values of EC and pH of nutrient solution”, International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 11(5), 59-64.

13. Lakkireddy K.K, Kasturi R, Sambasiva K, Rao K.R.S. 2012. “Role of Hydroponics and Aeroponics in Soilless Culture in Commercial Food Production”,Research & Reviews: Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology 1(1), 26-35.

14. Li T, Zhang Y.Q, Zhang Y, Cheng R.F, Yang Q.C. 2016. Light distribution in Chinese solar greenhouse and its effect on plant growth. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 3(2), 99-111.

15. Lee M, Yoe H. 2015. “Analysis of environmental stress factors using an artificial growth system and plant fitness optimization”, Bio Med Research International, 292543, 1-7.

16. Naddeo N, Cesaro A, Mantezavinos A, Fatta-kassinos D.D, Bekgirono V. 2014. Water and Wastewater Disinfection by Ultrasound Irradiation-a Critical Review. Global Nest Journal 16, 561-577.

17. Nasa S. 2006. “Progressive plant growing has business blooming. Environmental and Agricultural Resources”. NASA Technology Transfer Program 68-72.

18. Qiu R, Wei S, Zhang M. 2018. “Sensors for measuring plant phenotyping: a review”, International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 11(2): 1-17.

19. Raviv M, Lieth L. 2007. “Significance of soilless culture in agriculture”: soilless culture Theory and Practice 117-156.

20. Reyes J.L, Montoya R, Ledesma C, Ramirez R. 2012. “Development of an aeroponic system for vegetable production”, Acta Horticulture 947, 153-156.

21. Tavasoli A, Ghanbari A, Ahmadian A. 2010. Effect of Manganese and Zinc Nutrition on Fruit Performance and Food Concentration in Tomatoes in Hydroponic Culture. Science and technology of greenhouse crops 1(1), 1-6 (in Persian)

22. Valenzano A, Parente F, Serio F, Santamaria P. 2008. “Effect of growing system and cultivar on yield and water-use efficiency of greenhouse-grown tomato”. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 83(1), 71-75.