Ecological Factors Regulate Essential Oil Yield, Percent and Compositions of Endemic Yarrow (Achillea eriophora DC.) in Southeast Iran

Document Type: Research paper


1 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran Department of Plant Production, Bardsir Higher Education Center for Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran Research and Technology Institute of Plant Production, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran


Endemic yarrow (Achillea eriophora DC.) has been widely used in folk medicine for centuries. The impact of climatic and edaphic conditions was investigated on essential oil (EO) yield and compositions of different yarrow ecotypes, native to Kerman province in southeast of Iran. The aerial part of plants was collected from 13 naturalhabitats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed a significant variation in EO yield and compositions among ecotypes. 116 components were identified from 13 regions. EO extraction yields fluctuated from 0.71 to 5.83% (v/w) in KP12 and KP02 regions, respectively. The predominant components were L-borneol (0-45.93%), bornyl acetate (0-22.45%), bornyl ester (0-10.46%), (E)-α-ionol (0-28.77%), 6βBicyclo [4.3.0] nonane5β-iodomethyl-1β-isopropenyl-4α, 5α-dimethyl (0-12.14%) and eucalyptol (0- 3.96%). For the first time, the presence of hexadecenoic acid, 6β-bicyclo [4.3.0] nonane and 5β-iodomethyl-1β-isopropenyl-4α, 5α-dimethyl were reported in A. eriophora. EO yields and compositions were affected by the ecological factors. Among them, soil pH and latitude showed the most significant impacts.


  1. Abed K.F. 2007. Antibacterial and Anticandidal Activity of Essential Oils of some Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 14, 245-250.
  2. Agar O.T, Dikmen M, Ozturk N, Yilmaz M.A, Temel H, Turkmenoglu F.P. 2015. Comparative studies on phenolic composition, antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities of selected Achillea L. species growing in Turkey. Molecules 20, 17976-18000.
  3. Azevedo N, Campos I, Ferreira H, Portes T, Seraphin J, de Paula J.R, Santos S, Ferri P.H. 2002. Essential oil chemotypes in Hyptis suaveolens from Brazilian Cerrado. Biochemical systematics and ecology 30, 205-216.
  4. Barra A. 2009. Factors affecting chemical variability of essential oils: a review of recent developments. Natural product communications 4, 1934578X0900400827.
  5. Baser K, Demirci B, Duman H. 2001. Composition of the essential oils of two endemic species from Turkey: Achillea lycaonica and A. ketenoglui. Chemistry of natural compounds 37, 245-252.
  6. Bhatia S, McGinty D, Letizia C, Api A. 2008. Fragrance material review on l-borneol. Food and chemical toxicology 46, S81-S84.
  7. Deepa S, Mahadevan S.P, Babu K.A, Kumar K.S, Chitra K. 2014. GC-MS analysis of ethanolic bark extract of alstonia scholaris and evaluation of its pharmacological studies. Pp. 284-287.
  8. Di Giacomo A, Mincione B. 1995. In Gli Olii Essenziali Agrumari in Italia: Olio Essenziale di Bergamatto. Laruffa Editore Reggio Calabria,
  9. Dizajeyekan Y.I, Haghighi A.R, Gajoti T.E. 2016. Regional altitude and soil physicochemical factors influence the essential oil of Thymus pubescens (Lamiales: lamiaceae). Journal of biological and environmental sciences 10, 45-51.

10. Dokhani S, Cottrell T, Khajeddin J, Mazza G. 2005. Analysis of aroma and phenolic components of selected Achillea species. Plant foods for human nutrition 60, 55-62.

11. Dorman H, Deans S.G. 2000. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of applied microbiology 88, 308-316.

12. Franz Ch. 1993. Genetics. Volatile Oil Crops: Their Biology Biochemistry and Production, Hay RKM, Waterman PG (Eds) Longman, Harlow, UK, 93-66

13. Ghani A, Azizi M, Pahlavanpour A.A, Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, M. 2009. Comparative Study on the Essential Oil Content and Composition of Achillea eriophora DC. in Field and Wild Conditions. Journal of medicinal plants 2, 120-128.

14. Ghasemi Y, Khalaj A, Mohagheghzadeh A, Khosaravi A. 2008. Composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Achillea eriophora. Chemistry of natural compounds 44, 663-665.

15. Gudaitytė O, Venskutonis P.R. 2007. Chemotypes of Achillea millefolium transferred from 14 different locations in Lithuania to the controlled environment. Biochemical systematics and ecology 35, 582-592.

16. Hassiotis C.N, Ntana F, Lazari D.M, Poulios S, Vlachonasios K.E. 2014. Environmental and developmental factors affect essential oil production and quality of Lavandula angustifolia during flowering period. Industrial crops and products 62, 359-366.

17. Hendry E, Worthington T, Conway B.R, Lambert P. 2009. Antimicrobial efficacy of eucalyptus oil and 1, 8-cineole alone and in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate against microorganisms grown in planktonic and biofilm cultures. Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 64, 1219-1225.

18. Huber-Morath A. 1986. Achillea In: Rechinger KH ed. Flora Iranica. Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt.

19. Jaimand K, Rezaee M.B. 2004. Essential oil analysis of Achilea eriophora DC. Iranian journal of medicinal and aromatic plants research 20, 89-98.

20. Jarić S, Popović Z, Mačukanović-Jocić M, Djurdjević L, Mijatović M, Karadžić B, Mitrović M, Pavlović P. 2007. An ethnobotanical study on the usage of wild medicinal herbs from Kopaonik Mountain (Central Serbia). Journal of ethnopharmacology 111, 160-175.

21. Kordali S, Kotan R, Mavi A, Cakir A, Ala A, Yildirim A. 2005. Determination of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus and of the antifungal and antibacterial activities of Turkish Artemisia absinthium, A. dracunculus, Artemisia santonicum, and Artemisia spicigera essential oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53, 9452-9458.

22. Kundakovic T, Fokialakis N, Kovacevic N, Chinou I. 2007. Essential oil composition of Achillea lingulata and A. umbellata. Flavour and fragrance journal 22, 184-187.

23. Letchamo W, Xu H, Gosselin A. 1995. Variations in photosynthesis and essential oil in thyme. Journal of plant physiology 147, 29-37.

24. Liu W, Liu J, Yin D, Zhao X. 2015. Influence of ecological factors on the production of active substances in the anti-cancer plant Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) TS Ying. PLoS one 10, e0122981.

25. McChesney J. 1999. Quality of botanical preparations: environmental issues and methodology for detecting environmental contaminants. Botanical Medicine: Efficacy, quality assurance and regulation (Eskinazi D. ed.) 127-131.

26. Moghaddam M, Farhadi N. 2015. Influence of environmental and genetic factors on resin yield, essential oil content and chemical composition of Ferula assa-foetida L. populations. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 2, 69-76.

27. Mozaffarian V. 2009. A dictionary of Iranian Plant Names. Tehran: Farhang Moaser Publication 596.

28. Nemeth E. 2005. Essential Oil Composition of Species in the Genus Achillea. Journal of essential oil research 17, 501-512.

29. Ong B, Nazimah S, Tan C, Mirhosseini H, Osman A, Hashim D.M, Rusul G. 2008. Analysis of volatile compounds in five jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) cultivars using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). Journal of food composition and analysis 21, 416-422.

30. Özguven M, Tansi S. 1998. Drug yield and essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. as in influenced by ecological and ontogenetical variation. Turkish journal of agriculture and forestry 22, 537-542.

31. Pirbalouti A, Rahimmalek M, Malekpoor F, Karimi A. 2011. Variation in Antibacterial Activity, Thymol and Carvacrol Contents of Wild Populations of'Thymus daenensis subsp. daenensis' Celak. Plant Omics 4, 209.

32. Radulescu V, Lidia M, Ilies D. 2010. Chemical composition of the volatile oil from different plant parts of Anethum gravolense L. (Umbelliferae) cultivated in Romania. FARMACIA (BUCHAREST) 58, 594–600.

33. Rechinger KH. 1972. Compositae-Cynareae: 1. Cousinia: Flora Iranica 90.

34. Saberi-ameli S, Sadipour A, Ghelichnia H, Amanzadeh Y, Kazemi-gourti M. 2007. Phytochemical analysis of Achillea eriophora DC from Khebr, national park of Kerman by GC/MS. Pages 557-558 3rd Conference on Medicinal Plants. Shahed University, Tehran

35. Saeidi K, Moosavi M, Lorigooini Z, Maggi F. 2018. Chemical characterization of the essential oil compositions and antioxidant activity from Iranian populations of Achillea wilhelmsii K. Koch. Industrial crops and products 112, 274-280.

36. Sagnard F, Barberot C, Fady B. 2002. Structure of genetic diversity in Abies alba Mill. from southwestern Alps: multivariate analysis of adaptive and non-adaptive traits for conservation in France. Forest ecology and management 157, 175-189.

37. Sangwan N, Farooqi A, Shabih F, Sangwan R. 2001. Regulation of essential oil production in plants. Plant growth regulation 34, 3-21.

38. Satta M, Tuberoso C.I.G, Angioni A, Pirisi F, Cabras P. 1999. Analysis of the Essential Oil of Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym. Journal of essential oil research 11, 711-715.

39. Simic N, Palic R, Vajs V, Milosavljevic S, Djokovic D. 2000. Composition and antibacterial activity of Achillea chrysocoma essential oil. Journal of essential oil research 12, 784-787.

40. Slavkovska V, Jancic R, Bojovic S, Milosavljevic S, Djokovic D. 2001. Variability of essential oils of Satureja montana L. and Satureja kitaibelii wierzb. ex Heuff. from the central part of the balkan peninsula. Phytochemistry 57, 71-76.

41. Stojanović G, Asakawa Y, Palić R, Radulović N. 2005. Composition and antimicrobial activity of Achillea clavennae and Achillea holosericea essential oils. Flavour and fragrance journal 20, 86-88.

42. Torras J, Grau M.D, López J.F, de las Heras F.X.C. 2007. Analysis of essential oils from chemotypes of Thymus vulgaris in Catalonia. Journal of the science of food and agriculture 87, 2327-2333.

43. Tung Y.T, Chua M.T, Wang S.Y, Chang S.T. 2008. Anti-inflammation activities of essential oil and its constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) twigs. Bioresource technology 99, 3908-3913.

44. Vital P.G, Rivera WL. 2009. Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Chromolaena odorata (L. f). King and Robinson and Uncaria perrottetii (A. Rich) Merr. Extracts. Journal of medicinal plants research 3, 511-518.

45. Vlad D.C, Popescu R, Dumitrascu V, Cimporescu A, Vlad C.S, Vágvölgyi C, Krisch J, Dehelean C, Horhat F.G. 2016. Phytocomponents identification in mistletoe (Viscum album) young leaves and branches, by GC-MS and antiproliferative effect on HEPG2 and McF7 cell lines. FARMACIA (BUCHAREST) 64, 82-87.

46. Walkley A, Black I.A. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil science 37, 29-38.

47. Weyerstahl P, Marschall H, Seelmann I, Rustaiyan A. 1997c. Constituents of the essential oil of Achillea eriophora DC. Flavour and fragrance journal 12, 71-78.

48. Zargari A. 1997. Medicinal Plants University of Tehran Press. Tehran 3, 80-8. (in Persian)