Ecological Factors Regulate Essential Oil Yield, Percent and Compositions of Endemic Yarrow (Achillea eriophora DC.) in Southeast Iran

Document Type: Research paper

Authors

1 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran Department of Plant Production, Bardsir Higher Education Center for Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran Research and Technology Institute of Plant Production, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

Endemic yarrow (Achillea eriophora DC.) has been widely used in folk medicine for centuries. The impact of climatic and edaphic conditions was investigated on essential oil (EO) yield and compositions of different yarrow ecotypes, native to Kerman province in southeast of Iran. The aerial part of plants was collected from 13 naturalhabitats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed a significant variation in EO yield and compositions among ecotypes. 116 components were identified from 13 regions. EO extraction yields fluctuated from 0.71 to 5.83% (v/w) in KP12 and KP02 regions, respectively. The predominant components were L-borneol (0-45.93%), bornyl acetate (0-22.45%), bornyl ester (0-10.46%), (E)-α-ionol (0-28.77%), 6βBicyclo [4.3.0] nonane5β-iodomethyl-1β-isopropenyl-4α, 5α-dimethyl (0-12.14%) and eucalyptol (0- 3.96%). For the first time, the presence of hexadecenoic acid, 6β-bicyclo [4.3.0] nonane and 5β-iodomethyl-1β-isopropenyl-4α, 5α-dimethyl were reported in A. eriophora. EO yields and compositions were affected by the ecological factors. Among them, soil pH and latitude showed the most significant impacts.

Keywords


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