Document Type: Research paper

Authors

1 Former master student of horticulture, Department of Horticultural Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.

2 Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.

3 Faculty of Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Ramsar, Iran.

Abstract

Hypoxia is a potential threat to various horticultural cropsin lands prone to flooding. Citrus is mostly known as a sub-tropical crop that is often exposed to environmental stresses. In order to evaluate response of six different citrus genotypes, including sour orange, rough lemon, Trifoliate orange, Troyer citrange and two local genotypes labeled; CRC1 and CRC2 to flooding conditions, an experiment was carried out in factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with two treatments including flooded and control plants and three replications. Flooding stress significantly decreased leaf chlorophyll content, and plant total fresh and dry weights (P≤ 0.05). Flooding caused a significant increase in foliar concentration of proline in CRC1 and CRC2 (P≤ 0.05). Guaiacol peroxidase activity was significantly increased in Trifoliate orange. CRC2 and sour orange showed a significant increase in superoxide dismutase activity (P≤ 0.05). The longest survival period in continuous flooding condition was observed in Troyer citrange and Trifoliate orange (more than 60 days); while sour orange was the most sensitive genotype (less than 30 days). The best thriving genotype at the end of recovery period was Troyer citrange, while sour orange showed the least ability to re-establish. The results suggest that among the studied genotypes, Troyer citrange and Trifoliate orange are able to resist for longer periods of flooding exposure. Troyer citrange had the highest capacity to re-establish after being flooded to their critical surviving point. Furthermore, CRC2 tolerated anoxic condition and recovered more successfully than the other sensitive genotypes.

Keywords

Amador M.L, Sancho S, Bielsa B, Gomez-Aparisi J, Rubio-Cabetas M.J. 2012. Physiological and biochemical parameters controlling waterlogging stress tolerance in Prunus before and after drainage. Physiologia Plantarum 144(4), 357-368.

Arbona V, Lopez-Climent M.F, Perez-Clemente R.M, Gomez-Cadenas A. 2008. Maintenance of a high photosynthetic performance is linked to flooding tolerance in Citrus. Environmental and Experimental Botany 66, 135-142.

Ballester A.R, Lafuente M.T, Gonzales-Candelas L. 2006. Spatial study of antioxidant enzymes, peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the citrus fruit- Penicillium digitatum interaction. Postharvest Biology and Technology 39, 115-124.

Bates L.S, Waldren R.P, Teare I.D. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil 39(1), 205-207.

Balakhnina T.I. 2015. Plant Responses to Soil Flooding. Stress Responses in Plants 115-142.

Boyer R.F. 2012. Biochemistry Laboratory: Modern Theory and Techniques. Pearson Education, Inc.

Bradford M. 1976. A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Quantitation of Microgram Quantities of Protein Utilizing the Principle of Protein-Dye Binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72(1-2), 248-254.

Chance B, Maehly A.C. 1955. Assay of catalases and peroxidases. Methods in Enzymology 2, 764-775.

García-Sánchez F, Syvertsen J.P, Gimeno V, Botía P, Perez-Perez J.G. 2007. Responses to flooding and drought stress by two citrus rootstock seedlings with different water-use efficiency. Physiologia Plantarum 130(4), 532-542.

Giannopolitis C.N, Ries S.K. 1977. Superoxide Dismutases: I. Occurrence in Higher Plants. Plant Physiology 59(2), 309-314.

Hossain Z, López-Climent M.F, Arbona V, Pérez-Clemente R.M, Gómez-Cadenas A. 2009. Modulation of the antioxidant system in citrus under waterlogging and subsequent drainage. Journal of Plant Physiology 166(13), 1391-1404.

Krueger R.R, Navarro L. 2007. Citrus germplasm resources. In: Citrus Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology, Khan I.A, 45-140.

Lichtenthaler H.K, Buschmann C. 2001. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: measurement and characterization by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Currant protocols in food analytical chemistry. F4.3.

Martínez-Alcántara B, Jover S, Quiñones A, Forner-Giner M.Á, Rodríguez-Gamir J, Legaz F, Iglesias D.J. 2012. Flooding affects uptake and distribution of carbon and nitrogen in citrus seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology 169(12), 1150-1157.

Nicolás E, Torrecillas A, Dell’Amico J, Alarcón J.J. 2004. The effect of short-term flooding on the sap flow, gas exchange and hydraulic conductivity of young apricot trees. Trees 19(1), 51-57.

Oustric J, Morillon R, Luro F, Herbette S, Lourkisti R, Giannettini J, Santini J. 2017. Tetraploid Carrizo citrange rootstock (Citrus sinensis Osb. ×Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) enhances natural chilling stress tolerance of common clementine (Citrus clementina  Hort. ex Tan). Journal of Plant Physiology 214, 108-115.

Pucciariello C, Voesenek L.A.C.J, Perata P, Sasidharan R. 2014. Plant responses to flooding. Frontiers in Plant Science 5, 226.

Rodríguez-Gamir J, Primo-Millo E, Forner J.B, Forner-Giner M.A. 2010. Citrus rootstock responses to water stress. Scientia Horticulturae 126(2), 95-102.

Slabbert M.M, Krüger G.H.J. 2014. Antioxidant enzyme activity, proline accumulation, leaf area and cell membrane stability in water stressed Amaranthus leaves. South African Journal of Botany 95, 123-128.

Syvertsen J.P, Zablotowicz R.M, Smith M.L. 1983. Soil temperature and flooding effects on two species of citrus. Plant and Soil 72, 3-12.

Vu J.C.V, Yelenosky G. 1991. Photosynthetic responses of citrus trees to soil flooding. Physiologia Plantarum 81, 7-14.

Wu Q.S, Zou Y.N, Huang Y.M. 2012. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Diversispora spurca ameliorates effects of waterlogging on growth, root system architecture and antioxidant enzyme activities of citrus seedlings. Fungal Ecology 6(1), 37-43.

Yang F, Han C, Li Z, Guo Y, Chan Z. 2015. Dissecting tissue- and species-specific responses of two Plantago species to waterlogging stress at physiological level. Environmental and Experimental Botany 109, 177-185.