Document Type : Research paper


1 Department of Horticulture, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Iran

2 Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing, China

3 Bashkir Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture, Russian Academy of Sciences, R. Zorge St., 19, 450059 Ufa, Russia


Light is the driving force for plant photosynthesis. Different attributes of light (e.g. intensity, spectrum and duration) can influence plant growth and development. We studied growth and photosystem II performance ofEnglish marigold cut flowers under red (635-665 nm) and white (420-700 nm) LEDs. Although growing plants under red light resulted in morphological deformation such as leaf epinasty, it led to an early flowering and improved growth compared with white light-grown plants. In plants that were grown under red light, flowers were emerged 45 days after germination. In the time of flowering, there were 30 leaves (sum of rosette and lateral leaves) on the red light-grown plants, while 20 leaves were observed on white light-grown plants without flowering on day 45. Fast induction of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that fluorescence intensities of O-J-I-P phases in a typical fluorescence transient exhibited after a 20 min dark-adapted leaves were increased in red light-grown plants. Maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and performance index per absorbed light were decreased by red light, while quantum yield of energy dissipation was increased by red light. Most of the energy absorbed by the photosystems in red light-grown plants was dissipated as heat. In conclusion, although red light improved growth and induced early flowering in Calendula officinalis, full light spectrum is required to prevent leaf deformation and electron transport disruption under monochromatic red light.


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