Document Type : Research paper


1 Horticulture Department Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences

2 National Center for Seeds and Seedlings, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0852, Japan

3 National Institute of Fruit Tree Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8605, Japan


This study was conducted to identify and recognize relations and diversity among accessions of the Iranianpears (Pyrus spp). A total of 34 pear accessions, derived presumably from at least six species, were subjected to simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis. The Japanese and the Chinese pear samples were; “Housui” and “Yali” cultivars, example of Pyrus pyrifolia and P. bretschneideri, respectively. Some European pears and Iranian germplasm were analyzed. Seven SSR markers (KU10, BGA35, BGT23b, NH011b, NH013a, NH004a and NH015a) were used for the analysis. One hundred six visible amplified fragments (putative alleles) acquired for 34 pear samples NH011b and NH015a loci exhibited high heterozygosities of 0.82 and 0.79, respectively. BGA35 produced eight putative alleles, while NH013a created 22 putative alleles. The average value of allele per locus was 15. A phenogram was constructed based on the similarity-matrix data using the unweighted pair-group and arithmetic average methods. There was no association between the SSR and morphological phenograms. This work revealed relatedness of Iranian pear samples to the four species of P. communis, P. syriaca, P. salicifolia, and P. glabra.


Aldasoro J, Aedo J.C, Garmendia F.M. 1996. The genus Pyrus L. (Rosacea) in South-West Europe and North Africa. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 121, 143-158.
Asanidze Z, Akhalkatsi M, Gvritishvili M. 2011. Comparative morphometric study and relationships between the Caucasian species of wild pear (Pyrus spp.) and local cultivars in Georgia. Flora-morphology distribution functional ecology of plants 206 (11), 974-986.
Bao L, Chen K, Zhang D, Cao Y, Yamamoto T, Teng Y. 2007. Genetic diversity and similarity of pear (Pyrus L.) cultivars native to East Asia revealed by SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 54, 959–971
Bassil N, Postman J.D. 2010. Identification of European and Asian pears using EST-SSRs from Pyrus. Genetic Resources and crop evolution 57, 357-370
Bell R.L, Quamme H.A, Layne R.E.C, Skirvin R.M. 1996. Pears, In: Janick J, Moore J.N. (Eds.), Fruit Breeding, Volume I: Tree and Tropical Fruits, pp. 441–514. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, New Jersey.
Brini W, Mars V, Hormaz J.I. 2008. Genetic diversity in local Tunisian pears (Pyrus communis L.) studied with SSR markers. Scientia Horticulturae 115, 337–341
Browicz K. 1993. Conspect and chorology of the genus Pyrus L. Aroboretum Kornicke 38, 17-33.
Cao Y, Tian L, Gao Y, Liu F. 2011. Genetic diversity of cultivated and wild Ussurian Pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.) in China evaluated with M13-tailed SSR markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution On line. February.
Challice J.S, Westwood M.N. 1973. Numerical taxonomic studies of the genus Pyrus using both chemical and botanical characters.Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 67, 121-148.
Erfani J, Ebadi A, Abdollahi H, Fatahi R. 2012. Genetic diversity of some pear cultivars and genotypes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 30, 1065–1072.
Fan L.M.Y, Zhang Q.Z, Liu Li L.T, Song Y, Wang L.F, Zhang S.L, Wu J. 2013. Transferability of Newly Developed Pear SSR Markers to other Rosaceae Species. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 31, 1271-1282.
Gasi F, Kurtovic M, Kalamujic B, Pojskic N, Grahic J, Kaiser C, Meland M. 2013. Assessment of European pear (Pyrus communis L.) genetic resources in Bosnia and Herzegovina using microsatellite markers. Scientia Horticulturae 157, 74–83.
Ghosh A.K, Lukens L.N, Hunter D.M, Strommer J.N. 2006. European and Asian pears; simple sequence repeat-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-based Analysis of commercially important North American cultivars. HortScience 41, 304-309.
Khatamsaz M. 1992. Flora of Iran, Rosacea 6: 181-200. Iranian Research Institute of Forests and Rangeland, Tehran, Iran.
Kajiura I, Nakajima M, Sakai Y, Oogaki C. 1983. A species-specific flavonid from Pyrus ussriensis Max and Pyrus aromatica Nakai et Kikuchi and its Geographical distribution in Japan. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 33, 1-14.
Kimura T, Iketani H, Kotobuki K, Matsuta N, Ban Y, Hayashi T, Yamamoto T. 2003. Genetic characterization of pear varieties revealed by chloroplast DNA Sequences. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 78, 241-247.
Kitamura S. 1979. Pyrus. In: Kitamura S, Murata G. (Eds), Coloured Illustrations of Woody Plants of Japan, vol II, pp. 42- 47, Hoikusha, Osaka, (in Japanese).
Marshall T.C, Slate J, Kruuk L, Pemberton J.M. 1998. Statistical confidence or likelihood-based paternity inference in natural populations. Molecular Ecology 7, 639-655.
Martinelli F, Busconi M, Camangi F, Fogher C, Stefani A, Sebastiani L. 2008. Ancient Pomoideae (Malus domestica Borkh. and Pyrus communis L.) cultivars in “Appenino Toscano” (Tuscany, Italy): molecular (SSR) and morphological characterization. Caryalogia 61(3), 320-331.
Mozafari A, Grigorian V, Vezvaei A. 1996. Phenotypic identification of pears in the south of Kurdistan Province. M.Sc. Thesis. Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran.
Nei M. 1972. Genetic distance between populations. The American Naturalist106, 283-292.
Roder M.S, Plaschke J, Konig S.U, Borner A, Sorrells M.E, Tanksley S.D, Ganal M.W. 1995. Abundance, variability and chromosomal location of Microsatellite in wheat. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 246, 327-333.
Rohlf F.J. 1998. NTSYS-pc, Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System,
Version 2.01. Exeter Publishing, Ltd., Setauket, New York.
Rubtsove G.A. 1944. Geographical distribution of the genus Pyrus and trends and factors in its evolution. The American Naturalist 78, 358-366.
Tahzibi-Hagh F, Abdollahi H, Ghasemi A, Fathi D. 2011. Vegetative and reproductive traits of some Iranian native pears. Journal of breeding seed and seedling 27(1), 37-53.
Thibault B, Watkins R, Smith R.A. 1982. Descriptor list for pear. IBPGR. Secretariat Publication, Rome.Vavilov N.I. 1951. The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated Plants. Ronald Press, New York.
Teng Y, Tanabe K, Tamura F, Itai A. 2002. Genetic relationships of Pyrus species and cultivars native to East Asia revealed by RAPD markers. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science127, 262-270.
Vavilov N.I. 1951. The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants. Soil Science 72, 482.
VolkG.M, Richards C.M, Henk A.D, Bassil N.V, Postman J.D. 2012. Genetic Diversity of wild pyrus communis based on microsatellite analyses. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 131(3), 408-417.
Yamamoto T, Kimura T, Sawamura Y, Kotobuki K, Ban Y, Hayashi T, Matsuta N. 2000. SSRs isolated from apple can identify polymorphism and genetic diversity in pear. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 102, 865-870.
Yamamoto T, Kimura T, Ban Y, Shoda M, Hayashi T, Matsuta N. 2002a. Development of microsatellite markers in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Molecular Ecology Notes 2, 14-16.
Yamamoto T, Kimura T, Sawamura Y, Manabe T, Kotobuki K, Hayashi T, Ban Y, Matsuta N. 2002b. Simple sequence repeats for genetic analysis in pear. Euphytica 124, 129-137.
Yamamoto T, Kimura T, Shoda M, Imai T, Saito T, Sawamura Y, Kotobuki K, Hayashi T, Matsuta N. 2002c. Genetic linkage maps constructed by using an interspecific cross between Japanese and European pears. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 106, 9-18.
Yakovin N.A, Fesenko I.A, Isachkin A.V, Karlov G.I. 2011. Polymorphism of microsatellite loci in cultivars and species of pear (Pyrus L.) Russian Journal of Genetics 47(5), 564–570
Zhang Q, Li J, Zhao Y, Korban S.S, Han Y. 2011. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Chinese wild apple species along with apple cultivars using SSR markers. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 30(3), 1-8.