Document Type: Research paper

Authors

1 1Assistant Professor, Department of Medicinal Plant, Higher Education Center of Shahid bakeri of Miandoab, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

2 2Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 3Associated Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of altitudinal gradients on  the anatomy of Salvia limbata C.A.Mey. (Lamiaceae). . The S. limbata species were collected from their natural habitats from various regions of West Azerbaijan province in Iran. The thickness of cuticle, collenchymas, phloem, xylem and pith of stem and leaf thickness were measured. Moreover, width, length and number of stomata on both adaxial and abaxal epidermal surfaces were analyzed. Statistical analyses were done on a completely randomized design. The results indicated that by increasing altitude leaf thickness increased from 239.1 to 300.1 µm. Number of leaf epidermal cells was also increased in higher altitude on both upper (4.30 to 5.61) and lower (1.05 to 6.55) epidermal surfaces. The results  confirmed that  more stomata on both adaxial and abaxial epidermis in high altitude samples were associated with presence of narrower and longer stomata on their leaves. Significant differences in the cuticle, collenchyma, xylem, phloem and parenchymatous pith thickness in the stem were observed in all the six studied populations. At higher altitudes thicker cuticle, increased number of collenchyma and wider xylem, phloem and parenchymatous pith were detected. Plants in Mahlamlu region had the thickest studied parameters and Plants in Kabudan Island region had the thinnest tissues.

Keywords

Apel P. 1989. Influence of CO2 on stomatal numbers. Biologia Plantarum 31, 72-74.

Baran P, Özdemir C. 2006. The Morphological and anatomical characters of Salvia napifolia Jacq. in Turkey.  Bangladesh Journal of Botany 35 (1), 77–84.

Chiej R. 1988. The Macdonald Encyclopedia of medicinal plants. Macdonald and Co (publisher) LTD, Shoe Lane, London. pp. 272.

Cırıg N, Seçmen Ö. 1990. Salvia kronrnburgi Rech. türü üzerinde morfolojik, taksonomik ve e kolojik çalışmalar X. Ulusal Biyoloji Kongresi 325-330.

Çobanoğlu D, Ozel S, Evren H. 1992. Salvia trichoclada Bentham (Lamiaceae)’nın Morfolojik Özellikleri, XI. Ulusal Biyoloji Kongresi, Elazığ 24-27 Haziran Botany 83-99.

Codignola A, Maffei M, Fusconi A, Fieschi M. 1987. Leaf anatomy of alpine plants as related to altitudinal stress. Nordic Journal of Botany 7, 673-685.

Escalona F.D. 1991. Leaf anatomy of fourteen species of Calamagrostis section Deyeuxia, subsection stylagrostis (Poaceae: Pooideae) from the Andes of South America. Phytologia Balcanica 71(3), 187 – 205.

Furukawa A. 1997. Stomata frequency of Quercus myrsinaefolia grown under different irradiances. Photosynthetica 34, 195-199.

Gobbo-Neto L, Lopes N.P. 2007. Plantas medicinais: fatores de influência no conteúdo de metabólitos secundários. Quimica Nova 30, 374–381.

Günüz A, Özörgücü B. 1999. An investigation on the morphology, anatomy and ecology of Origanum onites L. Turkish Journal of Botany 2, 19-32.

Haque M.S. 1983. Phenotypic variability in foliar characters of some Salvia species. Proc. Indian National science of academy 49, 447-451.

Holland N, Richardson A. 2009. Stomatal length correlates with elevation of growth in four temperate species.Journal of Sustainable Forestry 28, 63–73.

Jacobs J.F, Koper G.J.M, Ursem W.N.J. 2007. UV protective coatings: a botanical approach. Progress in Organic Coating 58, 166–171.

Johnson D.A. 1940. Plant micro technique. Mco Grow Hill. Company Inc. pp. 126-182.

Kahraman A, Celep F, Dogan M. 2009.Comparative morphology, anatomy and palynology of two Salvia L. species (Lamiaceae) and their taxonomic implications. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 16(1), 73-82.

Kahraman A, Celep F, Dogan M. 2009b. Morphology, anatomy and palynology of Salvia indica L. (Labiatae), World Applied Sciences Journal6(2), 289-296.

Kahraman A, Dogan M. 2010.Comparative study of Salvia limbata C.A. and S. palaestina Bentham from East Anatolia, Turkey. Acta Botanica Croatica 69(1), 47-64.

Kahraman A, Celep F, Doghan M. 2010a. Morphology, anatomy, palynology and nutlet micromorphology of Salvia macrochlamys (Labiatae) in Turkey. Biologia 65, 219–227.

Kahraman A, Dogan M, Celep F, Akaydin G, Koyuncu M. 2010b. Morphology, anatomy, palynology and nutlet micro morphology of the rediscovered Turkish endemic Salvia ballsiana (Lamiaceae) and their taxonomic implications. Nordic Journal of Botany 28, 91–99.

Kahraman A, Celep F, Dogan M. 2010c. Anatomy, trichome morphology and palynology of Salvia chrysophylla Stapf. (Lamiaceae). African Journal of Botany76, 187-195.

Kao W.Y, Chang K.W. 2001. Altitudinal trends in photosynthetic rate and leaf characteristics of Miscanthus populations from central Taiwan. Australian Journal of Botany 49, 509-514.

Kandemir N. 2003.The morphological, anatomical and karyological properties of endemic Salvia hypergeia Fich. and Mey. (Lamiaceae) in Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Botany 35(2), 219–236.

Kasaplıgil B. 1961. Foliar xeromorphy of certain geophytic monocotyledons. Madrono, 16, 43-70.

Kaya A, Gogel F, Baser K.H.C. 2007. Morphological, anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia halophila Hedge. endemic to Turkey. Nordic Journal of Botany 25, 351–358.

Kaya Y, Aksakal O. 2007.The morphological and autecological properties of Salvia rosifolia Sm. (Lamiaceae) grown in Erzurum and its environs in Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 10(13), 2178–2184.

Koçman A. 1989. Uygulamalı fiziki cografya çaısmaları ve Izmir- Bozdaglar yöresi üzerinde arastırmalar. E. Ü. Ed. Fak. Yay. No. 49.

Kofidis G, Bosabalidis A.M, Moustakas M. 2003. Contemporary seasonal and altitudinal variations of leaf structural feautures in oregano (Origanum vulgare L.). Annals of Botany 92, 635-645.

Kofidis G, Bosabalidis A.M, Moustakas M. 2007. Combined effects of altitude and season on leaf characteristics of Clinopodium vulgare L. (Labiatae). Environmental and Experimental Botany 60, 69-76.

Kofidas G, Bosabalidis A.M. 2008. Effects of altitude and season on glandular hairs and leaf structural traits of Nepeta nuda L. Botanical Studies 49, 363-372.

Meidner H, Mansfield T.A. 1968. Physiology of stomata. New York. Mc Graw-Hill.

Metcalf C.R, Chalk L. 1972. Anatomy of dicotiledones2. Clarendon Press. Oxford.

Nakıpoğlu M, Oğuz G. 1990. İzmir ve çevresinde yayılış gösteren bazı Salvia (Adaçayı) türlerinin biyosistemetiği üzerine araştırmalar, Ege Univ. Fen Bilimleri Enst. Derg 2, 23-29.

Nakiboğlu M. 1993.The karyological properties of Salvia species (S. fruticosa Mill, S. tomentosa Mill, S. officinalis L. and S. smyrnaea Boiss.). Turkish Journal of Botany 17, 21-25.

Özdemir C, Şenel G. 1999. The morphological, anatomical and karyological properties of Salvia sclerea L. Turkish Journal of Botany 23, 7-18.

Özdemir C, Şenel G. 2001.The morphological, anatomical and karyological properties of Salvia forskahlei L. (Lamiaceae) in Turkey. Journal of Economic andTaxonomicBotany 19, 297–313.

Özdemir C, Baran P, Aktaş K. 2009.Anatomical studies in Salvia viridis L. (Lamiaceae). Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 6(1), 65-71.

Polat R, Satil F, Selvi S. 2010.Anatomical and ecological investigations on some Salvia L. (Lamiaceae) species growing naturally in the Vicinity of Balıkesir.Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 4, 33-37.

Qiang W.Y, Wang X.L, Chen T, Feng H.Y, An L.Z, He Y.Q, Wang G. 2003. Variations of stomatal density and carbon isotope values of Picea crassifolia at different altitudes in the Qilian MountainsTrees 17, 258-262.

Rechinger K.H. 1982. Flora Iranica. No.150. Graz:Akademische Druck-U Verlagsanstalt, pp. 462.

Shepherd T, Griffiths D.W. 2006. The effects of stress on plant cuticular waxes. New Phytologist 171, 469–499.

Shields L.M. 1950. Leaf xeromorphy as related to physiological and structural influences. Botanical Reviews 16, 399-447.

Vasic P.S, Dubak D.V. 2012. Anatomical analysis of red Juniper leaf (Juniperus  oxycedrus) taken from Kopaonik Mountain, Serbia. Turkish Journal of Botany 36, 473-479.

Walker J.B, Sytsma K.J. 2007. Staminal evolution in the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae): molecular phylogenetic evidence for multiple origins of the stamina lever. Annals of Botany 2, 375–391.

Zarinkamar F, Tajik S, Soleimanpour S. 2011. Effects of altitude on anatomy and concentration of crocin, picrocrocin and safranal in Crocus sativus L. Australian Journal of Crop Science 5, 831–838