Environmental and Anthropogenic Pressures on Geophytes of Iran and the Possible Protection Strategies: A Review

Document Type: Research paper


1 Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman

2 Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Kurdistan University


Ornamental geophytes (ornamental flower bulbs) are international and national heritage considering their contribution to people's life quality around the world. Iranian habitats support about 8000 species of flowering plants (belonging to 167 families and 100 genera) of which almost 1700 are endemic. Iran is a rich country in terms of distribution of bulbous plants. More than 200 species of bulbous species from different plant families naturally grow in Iran and play an important role in the colorful display of flowers in the plains, mountains, and forests. Unfortunately, some flower bulbs are at the risk of eradication in Iran due to some factors, including inappropriate herboviry and overgrazing, land use change, illegal bulb and flower harvesting, road construction, mining activities, drought, etc. The establishment of protected areas, efficient propagation methods such as micropropagation, gathering the species at the risk of extinction in Botanical Gardens and Research Centers, highlighting the decisive role of Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and improving tourism are some approaches suggested for better conservation. Meanwhile, under the current situation, national and international protecting rules and regulations should be assigned and fulfilled to save this invaluable natural heritage.


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