Document Type: Research paper

Authors

1 Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman

2 Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, Kurdistan University

Abstract

Ornamental geophytes (ornamental flower bulbs) are international and national heritage considering their contribution to people's life quality around the world. Iranian habitats support about 8000 species of flowering plants (belonging to 167 families and 100 genera) of which almost 1700 are endemic. Iran is a rich country in terms of distribution of bulbous plants. More than 200 species of bulbous species from different plant families naturally grow in Iran and play an important role in the colorful display of flowers in the plains, mountains, and forests. Unfortunately, some flower bulbs are at the risk of eradication in Iran due to some factors, including inappropriate herboviry and overgrazing, land use change, illegal bulb and flower harvesting, road construction, mining activities, drought, etc. The establishment of protected areas, efficient propagation methods such as micropropagation, gathering the species at the risk of extinction in Botanical Gardens and Research Centers, highlighting the decisive role of Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and improving tourism are some approaches suggested for better conservation. Meanwhile, under the current situation, national and international protecting rules and regulations should be assigned and fulfilled to save this invaluable natural heritage.

Keywords

Ajani, Y., J. Noroozi and I.G. Levichev. 2010. Gagea alexii (Liliaceae), a New Record from Subnival Zone of Southern Iran with Key and Notes on Sect. Incrustatae. Pak. J. Bot. 42:67–77.


Akhani, H. (Ed.). 1998. Plant biodiversity of Golestan National Park. Stapfia 53, Biologiezentrum des O.Ö. Landesmuseums, 411 p.


Akhani, H. 2004. A New Spiny, Cushion-like Euphorbia (Ephorbiaceae) from South of West Iran With Special Reference to the Phytogeographic Importance of Local Endemic Species. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 146:107-121.


Alavi, A., H. Alinejad-Rokny, and M. Sadegh-Zadeh. 2011. Prioritizing Crescive Plant Species in Choghart Iron Mine Desert Region (Used method: Fuzzy AHP). Austral. J. Basic and Appl. Sci. 5: 1075-1078.


Al-Gabbiesh, A., D.S. Hassawi, and F.U. Afifi. 2006. In Vitro Propagation of Endangered Iris Species. J. Biol. Sci. 6:1035-1040.


Amiraslani, F., and D. Dragovich. 2013. Combating Desertification in Iran Over the Last 50 Years: an Overview. J. Environ. Mgt. 92:1-13.


Amiri, F., A. Arianpour, and S. Fadai. 2008. Effects of Livestock Grazing on Vegetation Composition and soil Moisture Properties in Grazed and Non-Grazed Range Site. J. Biol. Sci. 8: 1289-1297.

Anderson, N.O. 2006. Flower Breeding and Genetics: Issues, Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century, Springer, Netherlands, 822p.


Anderson, R.C. 1994. Height of white-flowered trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) as an index of deer browsing intensity. Ecol. Applications 4: 104-109.


Ayoubi, A., F. Khormali, K.L. Sahrawat, and A.C. Rodrigues de Lima. 2011. Assessing Impact of Land Use Change on Soil Quality Indicators in a Leossial Soil in Golestan Province, Iran. J. Agr. Sci. Tech. 13:727-742.


Azadi, P., and M. Khosh-Khui. 2007. Micropropagation of Lilium ledebourii (Baker) Boiss. As Affected by Plant Growth Regulators, Sucrose Concentration, Harvesting Time and Cold Treatments. Electron. J. Biotechnol. 4:582-589.


Azarnivand, H., A. Farajollahi, E. Bandak, and H. Poozesh. 2011. Assessment of the Effects of Overgrazing on the Soil Physical Characteristics and Vegetation Cover Changes in Rangelands of Hosainabad in Kurdistan Province, Iran. J. Rangeland Sci. 1:95-102.


Bakhshaie, M., M. Babalar, M. Mirmasoumi, and A. Khalighi. 2010. Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration of Lilium ledebourii (Baker) Boiss., an Endangered Species. Plant cell Tissue Organ Cult. 102:229-235.


Banciu, C., M. Mitoi, F. Helepciuc, and F. Aldea. 2010. In Vitro Propagation of Critically Endangered Species Scilla autumnalis L. Biochemical Analysis of the Regenerants. Tom. XVII. 2: 318-323.


Barati, A.A., A. Asadi, K. Kalantari, H. Azadi, and F. Witlox. 2015. Agriculture Land Conversion in Northwest Iran. Intl. J. Environ. Res. 9:281-290.


Bogner, J., and P. Boyce. 2008. Eminium jaegeri, a New Species from Northwester Iran. Willdenowia 38:149.


Bosing, B.M., D. H. Haarmeyer, J. Dengler, and J.U. Ganzhorn. 2014. Effects of Livestock Grazing and Habitat Characteristics on Small Mammal Communities in the Knersvlakte in South Afr. J. Arid Environ. 104:124-131.


Chaichi, M.R., M. Mohseni Saravi, and A. Malekian. 2005. Effects of Livestock Trampling on Soil Physical Properties and Vegetation Cover (Case study: Lar Rangeland, Iran). Intel. J. Agr. Biol.7:904-908.


Challe, J.F.X., and L.L. Price. 2009. Engangerd Edible Orchids and Vulnerable Gatheres in the Context of HIV/AIDS in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed. 5:41.


Chang, C., C.T. Chen, Y.C. Tsai, and W.C. Chang. 2000. A Tissue Culture Protocol for Propagation of a Rare Plant, Lilium speciosum Thunb. var. glorisoides Baker. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 41:139-142.


Collins, A. 1998. Tourism Development and Natural Capital. Ann. Tourism Res. 26:98-109.


Crawley, M.J. (Ed.). 1983. Herbivory: The Dynamics of Animal-Plant Interactions. University of California Press, Berkley, 447 p.


De Hertogh, A., and M. Le Nard (Ed.). 1993. The Physiology of Flower Bulbs. Elsevier Science Publishing. The Netherlands, 811 p.


Dore, M.H.I. 2005. Climate Change and Changes in Global Precipitation Patterns: What Do We Know? Environ. Intel. 31:1167-1181.


Drake, J.A., R.S.B. Greene, B.C.T. Macdonald, J.B. Field, and G.L. Pearson. 2010. A Review of Landscape Rehabilitation in Ecosystem Engineering for Mine Closure. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Mine Closure. (Eds. Fourie, A., Tibett, M., and J. Wiertz.). Perth, WA, Australian Center for Geomechanics 241-249.


Ebrahimi, E., M, Mohammdi-Delcheshmeh, and M. Sardari. 2006. Fritillaria Species are at the Risk of Extinction in Iran: Study on Effective Factors and Necessity of International Attention. HortScience 41:1002.


Eftekhari, T., and M. Ramezani. 2004. Introduction to Plant Biodiversity in Iran. In: Biodiversity and Medicinal Plant Wealth of South Asian Countries (Eds. Pushpangadan, P., K.N. Nair, and M.R. Ahmad). National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow-226001, India, 39-40.


Eppich, B., L. Dede, A. ferenczy, A. Garamvogyi, L. Horvatch, I. Isepy, S.Z. Pristzer, and L. Hungary. 2009. Climatic Effects on the Phenology of Geophytes. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res. 7: 253-266.


FAO, 2005. Food and Agricultural Commodities Production. http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx.


Farahmand, H. 2007. Micropropagation of Fars Endemic Narcissus L. Populations. Shiraz Univ. Shiraz, Ph.D. Diss. 134p.
Farahmand, H., and F. Nazari. 2014. Horticultural and Ornamental Values of Iran’s Bulbous Plants. 1st Natl. Ornamental Plants Congr. October 21-22, 2014. P-27.

 

Farahmand, H., and M. Khosh- Khui. 2009. The Effects of BA, IBA and NAA on Proliferation of Narcissus Cultivars Shahla and Meskin in Fars Province. Proc. of the 6th Iranian Horticultural Science Congr. July 13-14, 2009. P: 84-85.


Farahmand, H., M. Khosh-Khui and A. Shekafandeh. 2007. The Effects of Activated Charcoal (AC) and Light Regime on Bulblet Induction and Growth of Two Narcissus tazetta L. Populations in Fars Province. Proc. of the 5th Iranian Horticultural Science Congr. Sept. 3-6, 2007. P-292.


Farahmand, H., M. Khosh-Khui, and A.R. Khosravi. 2007. Classification of Narcissus tazetta L. Populations in Southern Parts of Iran Based on Vegetative and Reproductive Characteristics. Proc. of the 5th Iranian Horticultural Science Congr. Sept. 3-6, 2007. P-114.


Farahmand, H., M. Sarchesmeh Pour, H. Mohamadi, H. Daei Parizi, and H. Fallah. 2014. Sustainable Mining with Emphasis on Degraded Ecosystems. 1st National Congr. on Sustainable Management of Soil and Environmental Resources. Sept. 10-11, 2014. P: 1-12.


Farahmand. H., and M. Khosh-Khui. 2006. Effect of Growth Regulators on Propagation of Two Narcissus L. Populations Through Twin-Scaling and Chipping. Iran. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 7: 169-180.


Genders, R. (Ed.). 1973. Bulbs, A Complete Handbook of Bulbs, Corms and Tubers (Robert Hale and Company, London, U.K. 662p.


Ghahreman, A., F. Attar, and F. Ghahremaninejad. 2007. A New Species of Tulipa (Liliaceae) From Western Iran. Novon: J. Bot. Nomenclature17: 437-439.


Ghahremaninejad, F., and F. Gholamian. 2006. A New Record (Oxalis articulata) From Iran. Irn. J. Bot. 12: 55-56.


Gholami, A., B. Rezaei, E. Panahpour, and A. Delavari. 2013. The Appraisal of land Use Change and its Influence on Soil Quality Indexes in Gambue Region Western of Khouzestan Province. Intel. J. Farming Allied Sci. 2: 999-1002.


Ghorbani, M. H., Azarnivand, A.A. Mehrabi, M. Jafari, H. Nayebi, and K. Seeland. 2013. The Role of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge in Managing Rangelands Sustainably in Northern Iran. Ecol. Soc. 18: 1-15.


Gibson, G.R. 2012. War and Agriculture: Three Decades of Agriculture Land Use and Land Cover Change in Iraq. State Univ. Ph.D. Diss. 145p. Grabherr, G., M. Gottfried, and H. Pauli. 1994. Climate Effects on Mountain Plants. Nature 369: 448.


Gurbuz, B., K.M. Khawar, N. Arslan, A. Ipek, E.O. Sarıhan, S. Ozcan, I. Parmaksız, and S. Mirici. 2009. Adaptation of Endemic Mediterranean Sternbergia candida Mathew Et T. Baytop in the continental climate of Central Anatolia. Scientia Hort. 123: 99–103.


Hassani, N., H.R. Asghari, A.S. Frid, and M. Nurberdief. 2008. Impact of Overgrazing in Long Term Traditional Grazing Ecosystem on Vegetation Aroun Watering Points in A Semi-Arid Rangeland of North-Eastern Iran. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 11:1733-1737.


Heshmati, G.A. 2007. Vegetation Characteristics of Four Ecological Zones of Iran. Intel. J. Plant Prod. 1: 215-224.


Heshmati, M., A. Abdu, N.M. Majid, and J. Shamshuddin. 2013. Land Degradation and Preventive Measures from the Perspective of the Stakeholders. Amer. J. Appl. Sci. 10:1061-1076.


Hill, D., M. Fasham, G. Tucker, M. Shewry, and P. Shaw (eds.). 2006 Handbook of Biodiversity Methods. Cambridge University Presss. The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge. U.K. 486 p.


IUCN. 2004. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List of Threatened Species. A Global Species Assessment. http://www.iucnredlist.org/.


Jafari, A. 2012. A New Species of Leopoldia (Asparagaceae) From Iran. Phytotaxa 43:61-64.


Jalili, A., and Z. Jamzad (Eds.). 1999. Red Data Book of Iran Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands. Iran. 748 p. Katerere, D.R., and Eloff, J.N. 2008. Anti-bacterial Activity of Hypoxis hemerocallidea (Hypoxidaceae): Can Leaves be Substituted for Corms as a Conservation Strategy? J. Enthopharmacol. 74:613-616.


Korner, C. (Ed.). 1999. Alpine Plant Life: Functional Plant Ecology of High Mountain Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. 359p.


Kumar, V., and A. K. Sharma (Eds.). 2001. Plant Biotechnology and Biodiversity. Agrobios, Jodhpur, India. 374p.


Lomba, A., L. Pellissier, C. Randin, J. Vicente, F. Moreira, J. Honardo, and A. Guisan. 2010. Overcoming the Rare Species Modeling Paradox: A Novel Hierarchical Framework Applied on an Iberian Endemic Plant. Biol. Conserv. 143:2647-2657.

 

Louhaichi, M., A.K. Salkini, and S.L. Petersen. 2009. Effect of Small Ruminant Grazing on the Plant Community Characteristics of Semi-Arid Mediterranean Ecosystems. Intl. J. Agr. Biol. 11:681-689.


Lubbers, A., and M. Lechowicz. 1989. Effects of Leaf Removal on Reproduction vs. Belowground Storage in Trillium grandiflorum. Ecol. 70:85- 96.


Makki, T., S. Fakheran, H. Moradi, M. Iravani, and J. Senn. 2013. Landscape-Scale Impacts of Transportation Infrastructure on Spatial Dynamics of Two Vulnerable Ungulate Species in Ghamishloo Wildlife Refuge, Iran. Ecol. Indicators 31:6-14.


Malekafzali, H. 2004. Population Control and Reproductive Health in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Arch. Iran. Med. 7: 247-250.


Mander, M. 1997. The Marketing of Indigenous Medicinal Plant in South Africa a Case Study in KwaZulu-Natal. Investigation Report No. 164, Institute of Natural Resources, Univ. of Natal Pietermaritzburg.


Mannion, A.M. 2003. The Environmental Impact of War and Terrorism. Geographical Paper 169. 22p.


Maroofi, M. 2007. A New Species of the Genus Muscari (Liliaceae) From Iran. Iran. J. Bot. 13: 75-77.


Martinez-Ruiz, C., B. Fernandez- Santos, P.D. Putwain, and M.J. Fernansez-Gomez. 2007. Natural and Man-Induced Vegetation on Mining Wastes: Changing in the Floristic Composition During Early Succession. Ecol. Eng. 30:286-294.


McNeely, J.A. 2003. Biodiversity in Arid Regions: Values and Perceptions J. Arid Environ. 54:61-70.


Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, M., A. Khalighi, A. Naderi, M. Sardari, and E. Ebrahimie. 2008. Petal: a Reliable Explant for Direct Bulblet Regeneration of Endangered Wild Populations of Fritillaria imperialis L. Acta Physiol. Plant. 30: 395–399


Mohseni Saravi, M., M.R. Chaichi, and B. Attaeian. 2005. Effects of Soil Compaction by Animal Trampling on Growth Characteristics of Agropyrum repens (case study: Lar rangeland, Iran). Intl. J. Agr. Biol. 7: 909-914. Mozaffarian, V. (Ed.). 2003. A Dictionary of Iranian Plants Names. Farhang-e-Moaser, Tehran, Iran. (In Farsi). 671 p.


Nazari, F., H. Farahmand, and M. Ghasemi Ghehsareh. 2014. The Effects of different Amounts of Natural Zeolite on Vegetative and Reproductive Characteristics of Narcissus tazetta L. cv. Shahla. J. Plant Prod. 2:39-48.


Nazari, F., H. Farahmand, M. Khosh-Khui, and H. Salehi. 2007. Effects of Two Planting Methods on Vegetative and Reproductive Characteristics of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). Adv. Natural Appl. Sci. 1:26-29.


Nazari, F., H. Farahmand, M. Khosh-Khui, and H. Salehi. 2011. Effects of Different Pot Mixtures on Vegetative, Reproductive and Physiological Characteristics of Iranian Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis L. cv. Sonbol-e-Irani). Intl. J. Agr. Food Sci. 1:34-38.


Ncube, B., J.F. Finnie, and J. Van Staden. 2011. Seasonal Variation in Antimicrobial and Photochemical Properties of Frequent Used Medicinal Bulbous Plants From South Africa. South Afr. J. Bot. 77:387-396.


Noor Alhamad, M. 2006. Ecological and Species Diversity of Arid Mediterranean Grazing Land Vegetation. J. Arid Environ. 66: 698-715.


Noroozi, J., H. Akhani, and S.W. Breckle. 2008. Biodiversity and Phytogeography of Alpine the Alpine Flora of Iran. Biodiversity Conserv. 17:493-521.


Noy-Meir, I., and T. Oron. 2001. Effects of Grazing on Geophytes in Mediterranean Vegetation. J. Vegetation Sci. 12:749-760.


Noy-Meir, I., M. Gutman, and M. Kaplan. 1989. Response of Mediterranean Grassland Plants to Grazing and Protection. J. Ecol. 77:290-310. Pauli, H., M. Gottfried, and T. Dribock. 2007. Signal of Range Expansions and Contributions of Vascular Plants in the High Alp: Observations (1994-2004) at the GLORIA Master Site Schrankogel, Tyrol, Austria. Global Change Biol. 13:147-156.


Paunescu, N. 2009. Biotechnology for Endangered Plant Conservation: A Critical Overview. Romanian Biotechnol. Lett. 14:4095-14103.


Perevolotsky, A., R. Schwarts-Tazchor, R. Yonathan, and G. Neeman. 2011. Geophytes-Herbivore Interactions: Reproduction and Population Dynamics of Anemone coronaria L. Plant Ecol. 212:563-571.


Pourbabaei, H., V. Rahimi, and M.N. Adel. 2014. Effects of Drought on Plant Species Diversity and Productivity in the Oak Forests of Western Iran. Ecol. Balkanica 6:61-67.

 

Rahimi, A., M. Aghaalinejad, and N. Arslan. 2012. Geophytes of Sulduz Region, West Azerbayjan Province, Iran and Their Characteristics. Pure Appl. Bio.1:18-21.


Rahimi, M., M.H. Daneshvar, M.Heydari, and F. Yari. 2013. In Vitro Micropropagation of Fritillaria imperialis L. Through Induction of Indirect Organogenesis. Intl. J. Agron. Plant Prod. 4:418-424.


Razyfard, H., S. Zaree, R.M. Fritsch, and H. Maroofi. 2011. Four New Species of Allium (Alliaceae) From Iran. Ann. Bot. Fennici 48:352-360.


Renz. J. 1978. Orchidaceae, In: Flora Iranica (ed. Rechinger, K. H.). Austria.125p.


Rios, S., J. Juan, V. Martinez-Frances, E. Laguna, D. Rivera, F. Alcaraz, A. Verde, J. Fajardo, J.L. Casas, and J.E. Ramirez. 2010. Endemic Species of Narcissus in Central Spain: Biodiversity and Conservation under Grazing Pressure by Wild and Domestic Herbivorous. Options Mediterraneennes 92: 79-83.


Ross, S. and G. Wall. 1999. Ecotourism: Towards Congruence between Theory and Practice. Tourism Mgt. 20: 123-132.


Saad, L., and S. Khuri. 2003. Hanging in There by a Fall- the Oncocyclus Irises of Lebanon. British Iris Society. 3p.


Sarasan, V., R. Gripps, M.M. Ramsay, C. Atherton, M. McMichean, G. Prendergast, and J.K. Rowntree. 2006. Conservation In Vitro of Threatened Plants-Progress in the Past Decade. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 42:206-214.

Shanley, P., and Luz, L. 2003. The Impacts of Forest Degradation on Medicinal Plant Use and Implication Purpose for Health Care in Eastern Amazonia. Bioresource 53:573-584.


Sheldon, J.W., M.J. Balick, and S.A. Laird. 1997. Medicinal Plants: Can Utilization and Conservation Coexist? Adv. Econ Bot. 12:1-104.


Sivakumar, M.V.K., H.P. Das, and O. Brunini. 2005. Impacts of Present and Future Climate Variability and Change on Agriculture and Forestry in the Arid and Semi-Arid Tropics. Climatic Change 70: 31-72.


Stafford Smith, D.M. 1996. Management of Rangelands: Paradigms and Their Limits. In: The Ecology and Management of Grazing Systems (eds. Hodgson, J., and A. W.Illis). CAB, Wallingford, UK. 325-375.


Theurillat, J.P., and A. Guisan, 2001. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Vegetation in the European Alps: a Review. Climatic Change 50:77-109. Tietjen, B., and F. Jeltsch. 2007. Semi-arid Grazing Systems and Climate Change: a Survey of Present Modeling Potential Ad Future Needs. J. Appl. Ecol. 44: 425-434.


UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2003. Afghanistan Post-conflict Environmental Assessment. 180 p.

http://www.unep.org/.UNEP. 2000. Report of the Fifth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Nairobi, May 15-26.


Urry, J. 1992. The “Tourist Gaze” and the Environment. Theory, Culture and Society 9:1-26. Van der Duim, R., and J.Caalders. 2002. Biodiversity and Tourism Impacts and Interventions. Ann. Tourism Res. 29: 743-761.


Vedat Ulug, B., A.B. Korkut, E.E. Sisman, and Muratozyavuz. 2010. Research on Propagation Methods of Persian Lily Bulbs (Fritillaria persica L.) with Various Vegetative Techniques. Pak. J. Bot. 42: 2785-2792.


Wendelbo. P. 1977. Tulips and Irises of Iran and Their Relatives. Botanical Institute of Iran. M.A. Fardin, Tehran, Iran. 83p.


Wentzell G.K 1973 How to Grow Bulbs. Lane Magazine and Company, California, U.S.A. 80p.


Williams, V.L. 2003. Hawkers of Health: an investigation of the Faraday Street Traditional Medicine market in Johannesburg, Gauteng. Report to Gauteng Directorate of Nature Conservation, DACEL. Plant Ecology and Conservation Series. Vol.15 Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.


WTO. 2010. World Tourism Organization. Tourism and Biodiversity Achieving Common Goals towards Sustainability. Madrid, Spain. 73p.


Yates, C.G., D.A. Norton, and R.J. Hobbs. 2000. Grazing Effect on Plant Cover, Soil and Microclimate in Fragmented Woodlands in South-Western Australia: Implication for Restoration. Austral. Ecol. 25: 36-47.


Yavari, A., and S. M. Shahgolzar. 2010. Floristic Study of Khan-Gormaz Protected Area in Hamadan Province, Iran. Intel J. Agr. Biol. 12:271-275.


Zarrei, M., P. Wilkin, M. Ingrouille, and M.W. Chase. 2010. Gagea calcicola (Liliaceae), a New Species from Southwestern Iran. Kew Bulletin 65: 89-96.