Document Type: Research paper

Authors

1 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran

2 Department of Horticultural Sciences, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran

Abstract

Scape bending disorder is the most important factor affecting postharvest loss of gerbera cut flowers. One of the ultimate reasons for gerbera stem bending is lignin, with deformation structural functions and defensive mechanisms. This postharvest experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes activity in stem bending of two gerbera cultivars; (‘Beaudine’ (sensitive)) and (‘Aqua’(resistant)). This experiment was based on a completely randomized design with three replications over eight days. Results showed the significant effects of cultivar on stem bending percentage, total phenol content, PAL and POD enzyme activities and lignin content (P<0.05). The ‘Aqua’ cultivar had the highest phenol and lignin content and the lowest stem bending percentage. The maximum and the minimum PAL and POD enzyme activities were observed in resistant and sensitive cultivars, respectively. Based on the results, induction of PAL and POD enzymes activity, and consequently lignin formation could have direct effects on stem strength and as a result reduce gerbera stem bending disorder.

Keywords

  1. Boerjan, W., I. Ralph, and M. Baucher. 2003. Lignin Biosynthesis. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 54:519–546.
  2. Boudet, A.M., S. Kajita, J. Grima-Pettenati, and D. Goffner. 2003. Lignins and Lignocellulosics: a Better Control of Synthesis for New and Improved Uses. Trends Plant Sci. 8:576–581.
  3. Bradford, M.M. 1976. A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Quantitation of Microgram quantities of Protein Utilizing the Principle of Protein–dye Binding. Annu. Biochem. 72:248–254.
  4. Bruce, R.J. and C.A. West. 1989. Elicitation of Lignin Biosynthesis and Isoperoxidase Activity by Pectic Fragments in Suspension Cultures of Castor Bean. Plant Physiol. 91:889–897.
  5. Cai, C., C. Xu, X. Li, I. Ferguson, and K. Chen. 2006. Accumulation of Lignin in Relation to Change in Activities of Lignifications Enzymes in Loquat Fruit after Harvest. Post. Biol. Technol. 40:163-169.
  6. Celikel, F.G. and M.S. Reid. 2002. Storage Temperature Affects the Quality of the Cut Flowers from the Asteraceae. HortScience 37(1):148-150.
  7. Emongor, V. E. 2004. Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Postharvest Quality and Vase Life of Gerbera Cut Flowers (Gerbera jamesonii). J. Agron. 3(3):191-195.
  8. Ferrante, A. and G. Serra. 2009. Lignin Content and Stem Bending Incidence on Cut Gerbera Flowers. Acta Hort. 847:377–384.
  9. Ferrante, A., A., Alberici, S. Antonacci, and G. Serra. 2007. Effect of Promoter Andinhibitors of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Enzyme on Stem Bending of Cut Gerbera Flowers. Acta Hort. 755:471–476.

10. Gerasopoulos, D. and Chebli, B. 1999. Effects of Pre- and Postharvest Calcium Applications on the Vase Life of Cut Gerberas. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 74:78-81.

11. Guosheng, Lv., T. Dejuan, C. Fadi, S. Ya, F. Weimin, G. Zhiyong, L. Zhaolei, and C. Sumei, 2011. The Anatomy and Physiology of Spray Cut Chrysanthemum Pedicels, and Expression of a Caffeic Acid 3-O-methyltransferase Homologue. Post. Biol. Technol. 60:244–250.

12. Hatfield, R. and W. Vermerris. 2001. Lignin Formation in Plants. The Dilemma of Linkage Specificity. Plant Phys. 126:1351–1357.

13. Hemeda, H.M. and B.P. Kelin. 1990. Effects of Naturally Occurring Antioxidants on Peroxidase Activity of Vegetable Extracts. J. Food Sci. 36(9): 877–880.

14. Ikeda T., K. Holtman, J.F. Kadla, H.M. Chang, and H. Jameel. 2002. Studies on the Effect of Ball Milling on Lignin Structure using a Modified DFRC Method. J. Agr. Food Chem. 50:129–135.

15. Imberty, A., R. Goldberg, and A.M. Catesson. 1985. Isolation and Characterization of Populus Isoperoxidases Involved in the Last Step of Ligninformation. Plantarum 164:221–226.

16. Li, X., J.K. Weng, and C. Chapple. 2008. Improvement of Biomass through Lignin Modification. Plant J. 54:569–581.

17. Li, X., Y. Yang, J. Yao, G. Chen, X. Li, Q. Zhang, and X. Wu. 2009. Flexible Culm 1 Encoding a Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase Controls Culm Mechanical Strength in Rice. Plant Molec. Biol. 69:685–697.

18. Lim, S., S. Lee, S. Kang, and J. Kim. 2012. Alstroemeria Plants and its Biotechnological Applications. J. Plant. Biotechnol. 39:219–224.

19. Luo, Z.S., X.L. Xu, and B.F. Yan. 2008a. Accumulation of Lignin and Involvement of Enzymes in Bamboo Shoot During Storage. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 226:635–640.

20. Luo, Z.S., X.L. Xu, and B.F. Yan. 2008b. Use of 1-methylcyclopropene for Alleviating Chilling Injury and Lignification of Bamboo Shoot (Phyllostachyspraecoxf. prevernalis) during Cold Storage. J. Sci. Food Agr. 88:151–157.

21. McDonald S, P.D. Prenzler M. Autolovich, and K. Robards. 2001. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Olive Extracts. Food Chem. 73:73-84.

22. Van Meeteren, U. 1978. Water Relations and Keeping-quality of Cut Gerbera Flowers. I. Water Balance of Aging Flowers. Scientia Hort. 9:189-197.

23. Mencarlli, F., R. Agostini, R. Botondi, and R. Massantini. 1995. Ethylene Production, ACC Content. PAL and POD Activities in Excised Sections of Straight and Bent Gerbera Scapes. J. Hort. Sci. 70(3):409- 416.

24. Nazari Deljou, M.J., A. Khalighi, M. Arab, and R. Karamian. 2011. Postharvest Evaluation of Vase Life, Stem Bending and Screening of Cultivars of Cut Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex. Hook f.) Flowers. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10:560-566.

25. Perik, R.R.J., D. Razé, A. Ferrante, W. van Doorn. 2014. Stem Bending in Cut Gerbera jamesoniiFlowers: Effects of a Pulse Treatment with Sucrose and Calcium Ions. Posthharvest  Biol. Technol. 98:7-13.

26. Puls, J. and J. Schuseil. 1993. Chemistry of Hemicelluloses: Relationship between Hemicellulose Structure and Enzymes Required for Hydrolysis, In: Hemicellulose and Hemicellulases, M.P. Coughlan & G.P. Hazlewood, (ed.), pp. 1-27, Portland Press Research Monograph, ISBN 1855780364, Great Britain.

27. Redman, R.S., S. Freeman, D.R. Clifton, J. Morrel, G. Brown, and R.J. Rodroguez. 1999. Biochemical Analysis of Plant Protection Afforded by nonpathogenic Endophytic Mutant of Colletotrichummagna. Plant Physiol. 119:795-804.

28. Rubin, E.M. 2008. Genomics of Cellulosic Biofuels. Nature 454:841–845.

29. Schuster, B. and J. Retey. 1995. The Mechanism of Action of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: the role of Prosthetic Dehydroalanine. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92:8433–8437.

30. Shen, Q., F.C. Kong, and Q. Wang. 2006. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Browning and Lignification of Bamboo Shoots. J. Food Eng. 77:348–354.

31. Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger. 2006. Plant Physiology, 4 ed. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA USA . 764 p.

32. Vanholme, R., B. Demedts, K. Morreel, J. Ralph, and W. Boerjan. 2010. Lignin Biosynthesis and Structure. Plant Physiol. 153:895–905.

 

33. Wilberg, B. 1973. Physiologische Untersuchungen Zum Knickert - Problem als Voraussetzung für die Selektion Haltbar Gerbera- Schnittblumen. Z. Pflanzenzucht. 69:107-114.