Document Type: Research paper

Authors

Department of Horticulture, College of Abouraihan Campus, University of Tehran

Abstract

Iran is a part of the secondary centre of origin of melons, and therefore, there is a wealth of genetic variation of these species in this country. The Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) marker was applied to investigate the genetic variations among five major Iranian melon cultigens (Cucumis melo) and ‘Ananasi’ as a general well-known cultivar. Ten primer pairs were used on 90 individuals producing 318 polymorphic fragments, with an average of 31.8 fragments per primer combination.  The polymorphism rates ranged from 80 to 100%. The genetic similarities among accessions were calculated according to Dice’s Similarity Index and used to construct a dendrogram based on the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA). The genetic distance estimates based on AFLPs ranged from 0.29 to 0.63, with a mean of 47±0.3. Iranian melon genotypes and the ‘Ananasi’ cultivar were considered as two separate groups on the cluster analysis. The principal coordinate analysis showed a separate allocation of the melon cultivar groups. The results demonstrated a wide diversity of Iranian melon cultigens. The high number of alleles and the high expected genetic diversity detected with the AFLP marker indicated that the Iranian melon cultigens had distinctive characteristics and were an important genetic diversity pool, which made them a valuable source of breeding materials.

Keywords

  1. Bassam, B.J., G. Caetano-Anolles and P.M. Gresshoff. 1991. Fast and Sensitive Silver Staining of DNA in Acryl Amide Gels. Ann. Biochem. 196:80-83.
  2. Behera, T.K., A.B. Gaikward, A.K. Singh and J.E. Staub. 2008. Relative Efficiency of DNA Markers (RAPD, ISSR and AFLP) in Detecting Genetic Diversity of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) J. Sci. Food Agr. 88:733-737.
  3. Doyle, J.J., and J.L. Doyle. 1987. A rapid DNA Isolation Procedure for Sample Quantities of Fresh Leaf Tissue. Phytochem. Bul. 191:11-15.
  4. FAO (2010) FAOSTAT agricultural database. Online: http://apps.fao.org
  5. Fabriki-Orang, S., M. Shams-Bakhsh, M. Jalali-Javaran and J. Ahmadi. 2008. Classification of Iranian Melon Collections using Microsatellite Markers.  Cong. Genetics. Conf. Iranian Genetics Soc. p130.
  6. Feyzian, E., M. Jalali-Javaran, H. Dehghani and H. Zamyad. 2007. Analysis of the Genetic Diversity among some of Iranian Melons (Cucumis melo L.) Landraces using Morphological and RAPD Molecular Markers. J. Sci. Technol. Agr. Natur. Resour. 11:151-162.
  7. Frary A. , H.Ö. Şığva, A.Tan, T. Taşkın, A. İnal, S.Mutlu and M. Haytaoğlu. 2013. Molecular Genetic Diversity in the Turkish National Melon Collection and Selection of a Preliminary Core Set. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 138:50-56
  8. Fufa, H., P.S. Baenziger, B.S. Beecher, I. Dweikat, R.A. Graybosch and K.M. Eskridge. 2005. Comparison of Phenotypic and Molecular Marker-Based Classifications of Hard Red Winter Wheat Cultivars. Euphytica 145:133–146.
  9. Garcia-Mas, J., M. Oliver, H. Gomez-Paniagua and M.C. DeVicente. 2000. Comparing AFLP, RAPD and RFLP Markers for Measuring Genetic Diversity in Melon. Theo. Appl. Genet. 101:860-864.

10. Gvozdenović, S., D.S. Panković, S. Jocić and V. Radić. 2009. Correlation between Heterosis and Genetic Distance Based on SSR Markers in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). J. Agr. Sci. 54:1-10.

11. Jagosz B. 2011. The Relationship Between Heterosis and Genetic Distances Based on RAPD and AFLP Markers in Carrot. Plant Breed. 130:574-579

12. Kohpayegani, J.A., and M. Behbahani. 2008. Genetic Diversity of some Populations of Iranian Melon using SSR Markers. Biotechnoligy 7:19-26

13. Lombard, V., C.P. Baril, P. Dubreuil, F. Blouet and D. Zhang. 2000. Genetic Relationship and Fingerprinting of Rapeseed Cultivars by AFLP: Consequences for Varietal Registration. Crop Sci. 40:1417-1425.

14. Lotfi, M., and A. Kashi. 1999. The New Iranian Melon as a New Cultivar-group. In: Andrew S. et al. (eds). Taxonomy of Cultivated Plants, Royal Botanical Gardens. 447- 449 (abstr).

15. Luan, F., Y. Sheng, Y. Wang and J.E. Staub. 2010. Performance of Melon Hybrids Derived from Parents of Diverse Geographic Origins. Euphytica 173:1-16.

16. Maras, M. J. Šustar-Vozlic, B. Javornik, V. Meglic. 2008. The Efficiency of AFLP and SSR Markers in Genetic Diversity Estimation and Gene Pool Classification of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Acta Agr. Slovenica 91:87-96.

17. Moaiedi nejad, A., A. Ershadi, J.A. kohpaigani, F. Dashti. 2010. Genetic Diversity Among Iranian Cantaloupe Landraces (Cucumis melo) Using Microsatellite Markers. Agr. Biotechnol. 1:1-8

18. Naroui Rad, M.R., M. Allahdoo and H.R. Fanaei. 2010. Study of some Yield Traits Relationship in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Germplasm Gene Bank of Iran by Correlation and Factor Analysis. Trakia J. Sci. 8:27-32

19. Nei, M. and W.H. Li. 1979. Mathematical Model for Studying Genetic Variation in Terms of Restriction Endonucleases. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 76:5269-5273.

20. Raghami M., Z. Zamani, A.I. Lopez-Sese, M.R. Hasandokht, M.R.Fattahi Moghadam and A. Kashi. 2014. Genetic Diversity among Melon Accessions from Iran and their Relationships with Melon Germplasm of Diverse Origins using Microsatellite Markers. Plant Syst Evol.  300:139–151.

21. Ramanatha, R.V. and T. Hodgkin. 2002. Genetic Diversity and Conservation and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Cult. 68:1–19.

22. Reddy, O., Y.R. Tomason, I. Zlenko, A. Bashet, P. Kaur, A. Levi, G.T. Bates and P. Nimmakayala. 2005. Molecular Diversity in Ukrainian Melon Germplasm.  Congr. Plant  Animal Genomes.  Proceed. Plant Animal Genomes XIII Conf. P. 177.

23. Rohlf, F.J. 1997. NTSYS-pc: Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System. Version 2.02. Exeter Ltd., Setauket, New York, USA.

24. Ruiz-Lozano, J.M., C. Collados, J.M. Barea and R. Azco´n. 2001. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis can Alleviate Drought Induced Nodule Senescence in Soybean Plants. New Phytol. 151:493-502.

25. Sekhon, M.S. and V.P. Gupta. 1995. Genetic distance and heterosis in Indian mustard: developmental isozymes as indicator of genetic relationships. Theo. Appl. Genet. 91:1148-1154.

26. Sheng Y.Y, Y.H.Wang, F.S. Luan. 2011. Distribution of Simple Sequence Repeat and AFLP Marker on Melon Genetic Map1. China vegetables. 1(8):39-45.

27. Soltani, F., Y. Akashi, A. Kashi, Z. Zamani, Y. Mostofi and K. Kato. 2010. Characterization of Iranian Melon Landraces of Cucumis melo L. Groups Flexuosus and Dudaim by Analysis of Morphological Characters and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Breeding Sci. 60:34-45.

28. Stanys, V., B. Frercks, J.B. Šiksnianiene, I. Stepulaitiene, D. Gelvonauskiene, G. Staniene, and Č. Bobinas. 2012. Identification of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Cultivars using AFLP and SSR Markers. Žemdirbystė=Agr. 99:437-444.

29. Staub, J.E., F. Serquen and M. Gupta. 1996. Genetic Markers, Map Construction and their Application in Plant Breeding. HortScience 31:729-741.

30. Vos, P., R. Hogers, M. Bleeker, M. Reijans, T. Van-de-Lee and M. Hornes. 1995. AFLP: a New Technique for DNA Fingerprinting. Nucl. Acids Res. 23:4407-4414.

 

31. Wang, Y.H., C.E. Thomas and R.A. Dean. 1997. A Genetic Map of Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) Markers. Theo. Appl. Genet. 95:791-798.

32. Xu Z., T. Hu and F. Zhang. 2012. Genetic Diversity of Walnut Revealed by AFLP and RAPD Markers. J. Agr. Sci. 4:271-276

33. Yashiro, K., I. Hirouoshi, A. Yukari and T. Ken-o. 2005. Genetic Relationships among Asian Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Revealed by AFLP Analysis. Breeding Sci. 55:197-206.

34. Zamyad, H., M. Jalali-javaran and F. Shahriari. 2005. Analysis of the Genetic Diversity among some of Iranian Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Landraces using Morphological and RAPD Molecular Markers.  Agr. Sci. Technol. J. 20:14-21.