Effect of postharvest calcium chloride treatment on the storage life and quality of persimmon fruits (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) cv. ‘Karaj’

Document Type: Research paper

Authors

Department of Horticultural Sciences, College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the storage life and quality of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit cv. ‘Karaj’ stored at 0°C for 4 months after postharvest calcium chloride treatment. Fruit weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total phenolic content, soluble tannin content, chilling injury, antioxidant activity, electrolyte leakage, and malondialdehyde content were measured in 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 days after storage. Peroxidase and catalase enzyme activities were also determined at the end of the storage. Fruits were dipped in the solutions containing 0.5, 1, and 2% (w/v) CaCl2 as well as distilled water only as the control. Results showed that the fruit weight loss and chilling injury significantly decreased by CaCl2 treatments compared with the control. CaCl2 treatments also increased fruit firmness and catalase and antioxidant activities, whereas they reduced MDA content, EL, and peroxidase activity during 4 months of cold storage. The results indicated that CaCl2 application influenced TPC and soluble tannin compared with the control but had no significant effect on TA. The best result was obtained from the 2% CaCl2 treatment in almost all the studied parameters. In general, postharvest CaCl2 treatment of persimmon could decrease chilling symptoms during the cold storage.

Keywords


  1. Akhtar, A., N.A. Abbasi, and A. Hussain. 2010. Effect of Calcium Chloride Treatments on Quality Characteristic of Loquat Fruit During Storage. Pak. J. Bot. 42(1):181-188.
  2. Ali, S., T. Masud , K.S. Abbasi, T. Mahmood, S. Abbasi, and A. Ali. 2013a. Influence of CaCl2 on Physico-Chemical, Sensory and Microbial Quality of Apricot cv. Habi at Ambient Storage. J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. 3(4):2744-2758.
  3. Ali, S., T. Masud, K.S. Abbasi, T. Mahmood and I. Hussain. 2013b. Influence of CaCl2 on Biochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Enzymatic Activity of Apricot at Ambient Storage”. Pak. J. Nutr., 12 (5): 476-483.
  4. Arnal, L and M.A. del Rio. 2004. Quality of Persimmon Fruit cv. Rojobrillante During Storage at Different Temperatures. Span. J. Agr. Res. 2(2):243-247.
  5. Bailly, C., A. Benamar, F. Corbineau, and D. Côme. 1996. Changes in Malondialdehyde Content and in Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Glutathione Reductase Activities in Sunflower Seeds as Related to Deterioration during Accelerated Ageing. Physiol. Plant. 97(1):104–110.
  6. Ben-Arie, R., I. Mignani., L.C. Greve., M. Huysamer. And J.M. Labavitch. 1995. Regulation of the ripening of tomato pericarpedaics by GA3 and divalent cations. Physol. Plant. 93:99-107.
  7. Chun, O.K., D.O. Kim, C.Y. Lee. 2003. Superoxide Radical Scavenging Activity of the Major Polyphenols in Fresh Plums. J. Agr. Food Chem. 51:8067–8072. 
  8. Conway, W.S., C.E. Sams, and K.D. Hickey. 2002. Pre- and Postharvest Calcium Treatment of Apple Fruit and its Effect on Quality. In: Tagliavini, M. et al. (eds). Proc. IS on Foliar Nutrition Acta Hort. 594:413-419.
  9. Dhindsa, R. S. and W. Motowe. 1981. Drought Tolerance in Two Mosses: Correlation with Enzymatic Defense Against Lipid Peroxidation. J. Exp. Botany. 32:79-91.
  10. de Souza, E.L., A.L.K. de Souza, A. Tiecher, C.L. Girardi, L. Nora, J.A. da Silva, L.C. Argenta, and C.V. Rombaldi. 2011. Changes in Enzymatic Activity, Accumulation of Proteins and Softening of Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) Flesh as a Function of Pre-Cooling Acclimatization. Sci. Hort. 127:242–248.
  11. Dey P.M., K. Brinson. 1984. Plant cell walls. Adv. Carbohy. Chem. Biochem. 42:265–382.
  12. El- badawy, H.E.M. 2007. Trials to Improve Marketing Characteristics and Prolonging Storage Life of Persimmon and Mango Fruits. Ph.D thesis. Benha University. Egypt. 390 p.
  13. El-hilali, F. A. Ait-Oubahou, A. Remah, and O. Akhayat. 2003. Chilling Injury and Peroxidase Activity Changes in “Fortune” Mandarin Fruit during Low Temperature Storage. Bulg. J. Plant Physiol. 29:44-54.
  14. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2014. http://www.fao.org
  15. Hussain, P. R., R.S. Meena, M.A.Dar, and A.M. Wani. 2012. Effect of Post-Harvest Calcium Chloride Dip Treatment and Gamma Irradiation on Storage Quality and Shelf-Life Extension of Red Delicious Apple. J. Food Sci. Technol. 94(4):415-426.
  16. Garcia, J.M., S. Herrera, and A. Morilla. 1996. Effects of Postharvest Dips in Calcium Chloride on Strawberry. J. Agr. Food Chem. 44:30-33.
  17. Goncalves, N.B.,V.D. de Carvalho, and J.R. de A. Goncalves. 2000. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Hot Water Treatment on Enzyme Activity and Content of Phenolic Compounds in Pinapples. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira. 35(10):2075-2081. (Portuguese/English Abestract).
  18. Kader, A.A. and Rolle, R.S. 2004. The Role of Post-Harvest Management in Assuring the Quality and Safety of Horticultural Produce. Rome: FAO Agricultural Series Bulletin 152, 51 pp.
  19. Kevers, C., M. Falkowski, J.O. TabartDefraigne, J. Dommes and J. Pincemail. 2007. Evolution of Antioxidant Capacity During Storage of Selected Fruits and Vegetables. Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Plant Biology Institute. University of Liège, SartTilman, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
  20. Krammes, J.G., L.C. Argenta, and M.J. Vieira, M.J. 2006. Influence of 1-methylcycloprpene on Quality of Persimmon Fruit cv. ‘Fuyu’  after Cold Storage. In: Websrter, A.D. and Ramirez, H. (eds). X International Symposium on Plant Bioregulators in Fruit Production. Acta Hort. Saltillo, Mexico. PP:513-518.
  21. Leong, L. P., and G. Shui. 2002. An Investigation of Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits in Singapore Markets. Food. Chem. 76:69–75.
  22. Lester, G.E and M.A. Grusak. 1999. Postharvest Application of Calcium and Magnesium to ¡Honeydew’ and ¡Netted’ Muskmelons: Effects on Tissue Ion Concentrations, Quality and Senescence J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 124:545-552.
  23. McCollum, T.G. and R.E. McDonald. 1991. Electrolyte Leakage, Respiration, and Ethylene Production as Indices of Chilling Injury in Grapefruit. HortScience 26:1191–1192.
  24. Mahajan, B.V.C. and R.C. Sharma. 2000. Effects of Pre-Harvest Applications of Growth Regulators and Calcium Chloride on Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Storage Life of Peach (Prunus persica Batsch) cv. Shan-e-Punjab. Haryana. J. Hort. Sci. 29 (1&2):41-43.
  25. Manganaris, G.A., M. Vasilakakis, I. Mignani, G. Diamantidis, and K. Tzavella-Klonari. 2005. The Effect of Preharvest Calcium Sprays on Quality Attributes, Physicochemical Aspects of Cell Wall Components and Susceptibility to Brown Rot of Peach Fruits (PrunuspersicaL. cv.Andross). Sci. Hort. 107(1):43-50.
  26. Mortazavi. N, R. Naderi , A. Khalighi , M. Babalar, and H. Allizadeh. 2007. The Effect of Cytokinin and Calcium on Cut Flower Quality in Rose (Rosa hybrida L.) cv. Illona. J. Food. Agr. Environ. 5:311-313.
  27. Nakano, R., E. Ogura, Y. Kubo, and A. Inaba. 2003. Ethylene Biosynthesis in Detached Young Persimmon Fruit is Initiated in Calyx and Modulated by Water Loss from the Fruit. Plant Physiol. 131:276-286.
  28. Picchioni, G. A., A. E. Watada, W. S. Conway, B. Whitaker, and C. E. Sams. 1998. “Postharvest Calcium Infiltration Delays Membrane Lipid Catabolism in Apple Fruit”. J. Agr. Food Chem. 46:2452-2457.
  29. Plewa, M. J., S.R. Smith, and E.D. Wanger. 1991. Diethyldithiocarbamate Suppresses the Plant Activation of Aromatic Amines into Mutagens by Inhibiting Tobacco Cell Peroxidase. Mutant Res. 247:57-64.
  30. Penel, C., P. Cutsem, and H. Greppin. 1999. Interactions of a Plant Peroxidase with Oligogalacturonides in the Presence of Calcium Ions. Phytochemistry 51:193-198.
  31. Ranadive, A.S. and N.F. Haard. 1972. Peroxidase Localization and Lignin Formation in Developing Pear Fruit. J. Food Sci., 37:381-383.
  32. Rosen, J.C. and A.A. Kader. 1989. Postharvest Physiology and Quality Maintenance of Sliced Pear and Strawberry Fruits. J. Food. Sci. 54:656-659.
  33. Safizadeh, M.R., M. Rahemi, and M. Aminlari. 2007. Effect of Postharvest Calcium and Hot-Water Dip Treatments on Catalase , Peroxidase and Superoxide Dismutase in Chilled Lisbon Lemon Fruit. Int. J. Agr. Res. 2(5):440-449.
  34. Slinkard, K., and V.L. Singleton. 1977. Total Phenol Analyses: Automation and Comparison with Manual Methods. Amer. J. Enol. Viticult. 28:49-55.
  35. Shirzadeh, E., V. Rabiei, and Y. Sharafi. 2011. Effect of Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) on Postharvest Quality of Apple Fruits. Afr. J. Agr. Res. 6(22):5139-5143.
  36. Softner, R.A., W.S. Conway, and C.E. Sams. 1998. Effect of Postharvest Calcium Chloride Treatments on Tissue Water Relations, Cell Wall Calcium Levels and Postharvest Life of ‘Golden Delicious’ Apples. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 123(5):893-897.
  37. Su, X, Y. Jiang, X. Duan, H. Liu, Y. Li, W. Lin, and Y. Zheng. 2005. Effects of Oxygen on Skin Browning of Longan Fruit. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 43(4):359–365.
  38. Subbiah, K. and R. Perumal. 1990. Effect of Calcium Sources, Concentrations, Stages and Number of Sprays on Physico-Chemical Properties of Tomato Fruits. South Indian Hort. 38(1):20-27.
  39. Taira, S. 1996. Astringency in Persimmon. In: Linskens, H.-F. and J. F. Jackson . Modern Method of Plant Analysis, Fruit Analysis. (eds). Springer-Verlang, Berlin, 18:97-110.
  40. Taira, S., M. Ono, and N. Matsumoto. 1997. Reduction of Persimmon Astringency by Complex Formation between Pectin and Tannin. Postharvest. Biol. Technol. 12:265-271.
  41. Vicente, A.R., G.A. Martinez, A.R. Chaves, and P.M. Civello. 2006. Effect of Heat Treatment on Strawberry Fruit Damage and Oxidative Metabolism During Storage. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 40:116–122.
  42. Voisine, R., L.P. Vezina, and C. Willemot. 1993. Modification of Phospholipids Catabolism in Microsomal Membranes of Irradiated Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.). Plant Physiol. 102:213-218.
  43. Wada, L., and B. Ou, B. 2002. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolid Content of Oregon Caneberries. J. Agr. Food Chem. 50:3495–3500.
  44. Wang, S.Y. and H.S. Lin. 2000.Antioxidant Activity in Fruits and Leaves of Blackberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Varies with Cultivar and Developmental Stage. J. Agr. Food. Chem. 48(2):140-146.
  45. White, P.J. and M.R. Brodley. 2003. Calcium in Plant. Ann. Bot. 92: 487-511.
  46. Zeng, Q., A. Nakatsuka, T. Matsumoto and H. Itamura. 2006. Pre-Harvest Nickel Application to the Calyx of Saijo Persimmon Fruit Prolongs Postharvest Shelf Life. Postharvest. Biol. Technol. 42:98-103.